During a trip to Saudi Arabia, I stumbled upon a real treasure! In Dammam is sturgeon farm, which manages Russian Yuri Alexandrovich Kitashin. He created it, and together with his son. The farm is unique in that is right in the desert, water is drawn from wells, is run on the concrete pool a few times and then merges into the desert. Built literally all hands. For the first time gave eggs farm in August 2006. Yuri Alexandrovich arrived in Saudi Arabia four years earlier. Technology is unique, much has been done according to the drawings of Yuri Alexandrovich. Once again, just imagine, in the desert, in Saudi Arabia, the Russian peasant breeds sturgeon and makes the world's best caviar. Caviar and fish from this farm is very much appreciated. For example, it buys the royal family of Saudi Aravan, it comes to the most expensive shops of Moscow. For eggs from this farm is literally turn. The advertisement Yuri does not need as many years, the demand exceeds the supply. Who is most difficult to decide whom to sell the eggs. And then comes the order from the royal family of 2 tons, and the farm just a year remaining 4 gives customers also can not be denied.
In this post I'll show you the farm and tell you how to breed sturgeon and caviar do.
34 via zyalt
Step one: the birth of a new life.
There is a selection of suitable male and female sturgeon. They are placed in a special mode: water temperature is lowered by 35-40 days from 24 degrees to 4-6 (this hibernating mode), then increased to 16 degrees, and within about 30 hours of ovulation. Fish injected pituitary bream or carp, and then a small knife she pruned the peritoneum (the fish caviar is directly in the abdominal cavity). With the help of a tube with a syringe at the end of the males take the sperm in the female-calf. In fact, the fish are milked like a cow. Caviar is mixed with sperm and transferred into trays.
After 6-7 days of incubation, larvae appear. They kept 2 weeks without feeding, feed on its own protein. After 10 days the larvae reach 700-800 mg in weight.
2. Sturgeon lives in salt water, and multiplies in fresh water. In nature, produced very low: of the calf eats fish often die because of the environment. For example, in our country, only 2% of the fry reach the Caspian Sea.
The pituitary gland - an appendage of the brain that produces hormones that regulate growth, metabolism and reproductive function. 1 gram sturgeon pituitary is 130-150 dollars, but it is very difficult to find sturgeon head. The pituitary gland is dried, aged in acetone, pounded into powder, then mixed with water and injected fish.
Here are bred fry.
Step Two: 4 months fingerlings reach a weight of 150-160 grams and transferred to a nearby workshop for up to 30 tons of sturgeon, ie 8000 head. Generally on the farm carried out strict accounting of the number of fish. In this block, sturgeon live to their first birthday. By 8 months of a hybrid of Russian and Siberian sturgeon weighs 1200 grams and in vivo - 200-300 grams.
4. Hybrid Russian and Siberian sturgeon to 3 years weighs 10 kg. Russian stunted (1.5, his weight is only 3.5 kg), but catching up to 4-5 years old.
5. Yuri himself has designed and developed a unique water filtration system.
The technological scheme of installation recirculation (RAS).
1. Swimming with fish, dirty water from which goes to the cleaning unit. Apart from fish faeces releases ammonia and carbon dioxide through the gills.
2. The cleaning unit:
a) mechanical drum filter which removes suspended matter: fish feces and uneaten feed (if any),
b) a biological filter consisting of a plastic substrate, a filler (fine polyethylene wheels). Water passing through the filter is cleaned by the bacteria from ammonia and nitrites,
c) UV treatment, where the water disinfection,
d) Aerokanal where the water via bubbling air is cleaned of carbon dioxide and oxygenated,
e) The pump is supplying clean and oxygenated water in the fish tanks. The water in the cleaning process is heated or cooled to a desired temperature.
Automated management, in different sections of the ultrasound sensors are oxygen levels, temperature sensors, motion sensors water. In case of emergency (the pump stops, oxygen levels drop) an alarm and to take all necessary steps to resolve the issue.
Step Three: here the fish lives up to his death. From there you can already take the eggs. The eggs get all year round. Herd inspected once 3-4 months, during which time it becomes a black from the gray.
8. In the processing 3 female population because they provide the eggs over 2.5 years. Total annual farm produces 4-6 tons of caviar and 90 tons of meat.
9. By the way, Yuri A. complained about the system of recruitment of migrant workers in Saudi Arabia. Businessman draws up an application for workers, and bring them to him. However, neither the skills nor the nature, nor even language skills play no role. That is, you can not choose sobesedovat or employee.
10. Who will be doing fish ultrasound)
12. Sturgeon barely hold 2 guy. At this time, the monitor can see the eggs, the exact same can determine the sex of fish.
13. Then pierce the fish special tube and get some eggs, to check the quality. If everything is OK, the fish are prepared for slicing.
14. By the way, the cost of building a farm of 20 million dollars. The first eggs can be obtained only in the fifth year.
Fourth stage: pre-sale preparation.
Here the fish is washed, screened for reproduction (and then you return to the first stage) or for meat and eggs.
If the fish is intended for slaughter, she gets on the head with a hammer. Then he removed the gills, and the sturgeon is suspended by the tail to the glass all the blood. Then she goes to recycling.
17. And this is just the place where the fish is processed. Here, a large smokehouse. It makes the meat hot and cold smoked fillets, bokovniki, sturgeon hot dogs and sausages
19. This container is brought here from sturgeon pre-treatment plant.
21. Then they are cut and pulled eggs!
22. Yellow - is fat. Caviar is first washed
23. It happens that a lot of fat
24. Then a grid eggs separated from the fat and films.
26. Next, the eggs were washed 3 more times. The eggs absorb water, so we have to do everything very quickly.
27. Put the eggs in a bowl.
28. And to add a special mixture - salt and preservative. All the mix.
29. The granular sturgeon caviar is not subjected to thermal treatment, and its storage period is very short. In the wild sturgeon fishing season lasts all year round, so there is a problem: how to maintain the gastronomic quality calves for at least several months (from the end of one fishing season to another)? In a very distant Soviet times to increase the shelf life of caviar began to use preservatives, antiseptics: boric acid and sodium tetraborate. Because of this caviar could be stored up to 4 months - this was barely enough from spring to autumn fishing season. USSR hundreds of tons delivered such sturgeon caviar abroad. Later, technology has been exported to Iran and other countries, where the mixture of preservatives called "borax".
It would have been nice, but there is a lack of borax: it is a carcinogen. The poison in the king's delicacies and renounce the use of this poison is not obtained. To this day, in the sanitary requirements of the European Union, the United States and some other countries, the use of boric acid and its derivatives in food is strictly forbidden for one exception: sturgeon caviar. Every year for decades, Chief Sanitary Doctor of the USSR prolonged the period of 1 year permit for the use of borax in our country, in the hope that within a year will be able to still come up with something to replace it.
Finally in 1994, after many years, Russian scientists have found a safe, effective alternative to borax - supplement LIV-1. The problem of preserving delicate bouquet of fresh sturgeon caviar has been resolved, and the shelf life of caviar has increased up to 9 months.
A few years later LIV-1 was included in the Standard "caviar granular sturgeon", and thanks to its introduction of Russia became the first country in the world to completely eliminate the use of carcinogenic borax in sturgeon caviar and, moreover, to prohibit its use in all food ( both produced in Russia and imported).
Sturgeon is on the rise (mainly in rich countries). Some manufacturers still lays eggs in borax, calling it «Iranianmethod», but at the same time every year more and more companies abroad use safer alternatives developed in Russia: LIV-1 and Vareks-11. For example the farm where I was. Thus, in this business, renowned for excellent sturgeon caviar, came forward Russian trinity: Russian raw materials (Russian sturgeon), Russian Technologies (YA Kitashin) and Russian preservative (LIV-1).
The eggs can remain grease particles or films.
30. They removed
31. Then the eggs are placed in a special jar and cover with lid. Pressed caviar. To remove all the moisture has put the bank in a press.
32. Here in this form of the bank kept a month. Caviar is dried.
33. The order for the Saudi royal family.