How are the crash tests of cars

In today's world in the development of the car can not do without computer simulation, but no computer can not detect potential weaknesses in the security of the machine. Identify all the weaknesses models can only be "combat" conditions, so every year the largest auto giants smash a few hundred cars to make sure they are secure. All known avtobrendy polygons have to fully test its products for durability, and has the independent laboratory. Today, we are accredited by the example of the German ADAC crash-center look at how to pass crash tests of cars.

Welcome to the crash center ADAC in the Bavarian town of Landsberg. The center is accredited and meets the requirements of Euro NCAP - the European Committee for the independent crash test car with the assessment of active safety and passive safety.

To date, all the cars are tested by one of the two accident scenarios - European Euro NCAP and US NHTSA. As you might guess, now climb the script.

The front of the machine meet with an obstacle leads in the number of victims. Unfortunately, even the stringent tests on both versions (NHTSA and EuroNCAP) are largely artificial and often do not give an objective assessment of the security. In particular, the car tested only at a certain speed, and the tests do not provide an answer, which is the strain at higher or lower speeds.

Also, these tests do not consider the situation of a passenger car collision with larger vehicles: buses, tractors, trucks.
Children mannequin in parsing.

To form a complete picture of the reliability of a particular model only with the help of numerous frontal and side collisions. For example, before you hit the market, Mercedes must necessarily go through as many as 28 tests for safety.

The first safety tests looked very monotonous: two cars of the same model simulated a frontal collision at a speed of 55km / h with a 50% overlap. Today, the testers are increasingly collide cars of different classes, so, for example, «Volvo» conducted simulated collision between a passenger jeep S40 and XC90.
Final preparations for crash tests.

Often, the program tests the safety of a passenger car enters a collision with a goods vehicle at a speed of 56 km / h with an overlap of 50%. In most cases the passenger car body is under multi-ton machines, reducing the chances of survival of passengers to zero. These tests have allowed to save many lives, thanks to the development and implementation of the so-called underrun design FUPS truck.

But head-on collision can not identify all the design flaws in the test model, many of them can only be found in a side impact.

According to statistics, only 2% of crashes car overturned, however, almost half of a revolution becomes the cause of death of passengers. Most prone to coups convertibles and large SUVs with a high center of gravity.

Interestingly, the crash-theta is not always carried out at high speeds. For example, the safety of the fuel tank is checked as follows: a cart with a load hit the rear bumper of the car ceiling of 40% at 15-40 km / h.

Specific tests are carried out with vital structural elements - seats and seat belts. For this purpose there is a special booth with a dummy, which accelerates to the desired speed and then brake sharply.
Mannequins are installed in the car.

Euro NCAP tests takes place in 4 stages. You should first frontal impact at 64 km / h with a 40% overlap deformable overlap.

After checking the safety of the machine side: the trolley car attacked a mass of 950 kg. Then the subject is confronted with an iron pillar, 254 mm in diameter at 29 km / h.
Crash Center ADAC. Ready to test the car for safety.

The fourth point of the test - the test car safety for pedestrians: the dummy shot down at a speed of 40km / h.

Today, we follow the leader in the number of victims - a frontal assault. Euro NCAP test conducted at a speed of 64 km / h with 40% overlap. Go!

The moment of collision.

We look at a collision speed of 64 km / h. Mannequins wearing work airbags.

And what happens in a collision at a high speed when drivers ignore seat belts?
French experts have long ultrafast camera filmed the collision of the vehicle at a speed of 80 km / h with a stationary obstacle. Inside were dummies with sensors, fixing the degree of trauma that would be from living people. Mannequins are not wearing, airbags disabled. The results are shocking:
After 0, 026 seconds: bumper cars after hitting pressed. The force exceeds the weight of the car 30 times, inhibits its movement about the line of the front seats. However, the passengers and the driver, if they are ignored wearing seat belts, continue by inertia movement in the cabin at the same speed - 80 km / h.
After 0, 039 seconds: the driver with the seat moved forward by 15 cm.
After 0, 044 seconds: the driver rests on the chest in the steering wheel and breaks it.
After 0, 05 seconds: the deformation of the car slows down, it stops abruptly. When this inertial force continues to act on the objects within the machine. The strength of the congestion affecting the passengers and the driver, 80 times their own weight.
After 0, 068 seconds: the driver with a force of 9 tons crashes into the dashboard.
After 0, 092 seconds: the driver and front passenger is sitting in sync heads hit the front windshield, was fatally injured.
After 0, 1 second: dangling on the steering wheel the driver leans back - this time he was already dead.
After 0, 11 seconds: the vehicle starts to roll back.
After 0, 113 seconds not fastened rear passenger sitting behind the driver, by the time reaches the front seat and causes a second blow. If the driver is at this point a miracle remained alive, the blow will finish him. Rear passengers also received fatal injuries in the collision.
After 0, 15 seconds: the inertia force is exhausted. The car finally stopped. Only fragments of plastic and metal with glass shards fly away. A cloud of dust enveloped clashes. Inside lie motionless body.

Tests are not limited to the above list of tests, some of which may have a very small percentage in relation to the total number of accidents (eg, car accident with a trailer). However, we can say one thing: all the famous brands of cars on safety of its products of paramount importance, with each passing year increases the safety of machines.
We were at a party at an accredited German ADAC crash center in the Bavarian town of Landsberg.



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