There exists in Germany is not only the right to unimpeded access to information, but also the possibility of personal involvement in the production of television and radio programs. Prepare and aired their own material may be due to the so-called "open civil media».
Speaking of the media, we usually have in mind the newspaper, radio or television, which employ professional journalists. However, the World Wide Web gives such opportunities of mass communication that some private weblogs or podcasts can seriously compete with traditional media. This is happening in Russia, and Germany. But in Germany there is another kind of media - Bürgermedien.
Mass media for mass use
Translate terms Bürgermedien Russian language is difficult: because what you do not know society does not exist in the language. The most appropriate seems the term "open citizen media" as an option, which reflects well the essence of the phenomenon. It does not feature in the technique of data - these are ordinary radio and television - and open access to resources for the creation and broadcast of television and radio programs to absolutely everyone.
In Germany, there are a variety of media, calling themselves the "Civil Radio", "Clear Channel", "Public Radio" or "University-TV." Organization of public civilian media are of two kinds. In one case, the registered association, the second group comprises the structure of independent land coordination centers of private electronic media. The status of these structures determines the land laws, but in Bavaria and Saxony of TV and radio channels does not exist, said in an interview with DW-WORLD.DE Peter Willers (Peter Willers), head of the "open channel" of Schleswig-Holstein.
And no censorship
Open citizen media are financed mainly by contributions from users of social and legal broadcasters ARD and ZDF. Owned by them on the radio and TV studios are willing to undergo training and to create their own transfer, free of charge. Their local broadcast channels. In some cases, an open civil media own their own radio stations, other - local broadcasters are given a certain time to transmit amateur journalists.
To try himself as a journalist, it is sufficient to apply to the radio or television editors, and always in the community as an open citizen media - it's always the local TV and radio. The content of the transfer determines the author himself. The only condition - it should not include advertising and content prohibited by law.
The paradox, however, is that the open civilian media often criticized for ... the monotony of subjects: too much music, too little policy. Supporters of these informal media insist that since this is the idea - to give all who wish to speak, and on any topic, whether it's music, football or the meaning of life.
Criticism of the authorities - including the "Fourth»
Open citizen media exist in Germany since the mid-1980s. The first project was implemented in 1984. According to the newspaper Tageszeitung, now, for example, in North Rhine-Westphalia in the creation of an open civil radio transmission actively involved about 18 thousand people united in 2700 groups, which are at the disposal of 150 radio stations. Financial support for these studios land focal point for the media is estimated $ 1, 9 million euros annually.
Open citizen media take their rightful place in the media landscape in Germany, along with public law and private broadcasting. Of course, they do not pretend to the role of traditional media. But the goals are different. Empower people to actively participate in political life - understand the problem of civil public media in Germany.
Equally important is their educational function -Formation so-called "media competence", ie the ability to deal with the media. Besspopno, the one who met with the "kitchen" of TV and radio, it is easier to develop a critical view of the activities of the "fourth power».
author: Olga Solonari