"If you're in front of people play the wise guy, talk to them in some foreign language that you don't forgive"
The son of Nobel laureate Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Soviet and Russian physicist, educator Sergei Kapitsa
for most of us needs no introduction. He was an outstanding personality. He belonged to the category of people who are changing the world for the better. Wise, brilliant people want to listen to for days on end to listen to their life experience, judgments, thoughts; inspirational ideas to implement in your life the best. Such people are not bad advise, do not teach bad.
Sergei Petrovich has lived a long, eventful life, died in Moscow on 14 August 2012, at the age of 84 years.
Mr. Jackson has repeatedly shared his thoughts on the current generation, and often explained the difference between the generations.
Background: In 2009, the all-Russia centre of studying of public opinion (VTSIOM) has conducted studies that the powers that be somehow not noticed. But to no avail. The results are such that at least two ministries — culture and education — you need to push all the "panic button" to call an emergency meeting of the Cabinet of Ministers. Because, according to opinion polls, 35% of Russians do NOT READ BOOKS at all!
But Russia, according to the speeches of the President and the Prime Minister took the path of innovative development. But what about innovations, scientific breakthroughs, nanotechnology, etc. can be discussed if more than a third of the population in a year never picked up a book? For this reason in 2009 the newspaper AIF took a small, but detailed interview with Professor S. P. Kapitsa. Here are excerpts from the interview:"Russia is turning into a country of fools""these polls were saying that we finally came to the conclusion he was striving for all those 15 years — brought the country of idiots. If Russia will continue to move the same rate, then even in ten years will be those who are at least occasionally picks up a book.
And we get a country that will be easier to edit, which will be easier to drain natural resources. But the future of this country is not! These words I uttered five years ago at a government meeting. Time passes and the processes that lead to degradation of the nation, no one even tries to understand, and pause.
We are a complete rupture of words and deeds. Everyone is talking about innovation, but it does nothing to these slogans started to be implemented. And the explanation "I'm working. When do you want me to read?" can't serve as an excuse. Believe me, our generation worked less, but the time to read it always was. And productivity in society a few decades ago was higher than now.
Today, almost half of able-bodied young people working in the security industry! It turns out that all these young guys — stupid, narrow-minded people that can only beat a muzzle?"Why do people read?
"Are you asking why would anyone want to read. Again, here is an example: organisms humans and apes are very similar in all their characteristics. But apes don't read, and people read books. Culture and mind — that's the main difference of man from apes. And the mind is based on the exchange of information and language. And the greatest tool of information exchange is book.
Earlier, beginning from the time of Homer, there was the oral tradition: people sat and listened to the elders, who in an artistic form, through stories and legends of past eras, passed accumulated a generation of experience and knowledge. Then there was a letter along with the reading. The tradition of oral tale has faded, and now fades and the tradition of reading. Take sometime and for the sake of curiosity browse through the correspondence of the Grand.
Epistolary heritage of Darwin, which is now published, — 15 thousand letters. The correspondence of Leo Tolstoy also is not a single volume. What will remain after the current generation? Their text messages will make for the edification of posterity?"The role of CSE in education
"I have long proposed to change the criteria of admission to higher educational institutions. No need for any exams — let the applicant write an essay on five pages, which will explain why he wants to do at one time or another faculty. The ability to competently Express their thoughts, the problem demonstrates the intellectual baggage of a person, the level of its culture, degree of development of consciousness.
And the exam, which is used today, can not give an objective picture of student knowledge. It is built on the knowledge or ignorance of the facts. But the facts are not all! If Volga flows into the Caspian sea? The answer to this question deserves a tick in the appropriate box, and a separate serious conversation. Because millions of years ago Volga fell not into the Caspian, and Azov sea, the geography of Earth was different. And a question from a textbook turns into an interesting problem. To resolve it, and required the understanding, without reading and education can not be achieved."Feelings instead of minds
"...the Question of loss of interest in reading is the question of what is happening with people. We ran into a very difficult moment in the development of mankind as a whole. The pace of technological development today is very high. And our ability to comprehend it all and is reasonable in this technical and information environment to live these pace behind.
The world is undergoing a very deep crisis in the sphere of culture. So the situation in our country is quite typical for the rest of the world — in America and in England, too little read. Yes, and such a large literature that existed in the world 30-40 years ago are no longer. Now the rulers of the minds is generally very difficult to find. Perhaps because nobody wants minds — the right feeling.
Today we do not need to read the attitude changed, and radically change the attitude to culture as a whole. The Ministry of culture should be the most important of all ministries.But the primary task is to stop to subdue the culture of Commerce.Money is not the purpose of existence of companies, but only a means to achieve certain goals.
You can have an army, whose soldiers will fight honorably, without remuneration because they believe in the ideals of the state. And you can have the service of mercenaries, who are equally happy to kill their, and others ' for the same money. But it will be different armies!And in science, breakthroughs are being made not for money but for fun. This here cat's interest! And large art the same. Masterpieces for the money, not born.
If all subordinate to the money, then the money will remain, they will not become neither a masterpiece nor a discovery.
So the children began to read again, the country needs to have a corresponding cultural environment. And what now defines culture? Once the tone was set by the Church. People in the day went to the temple and instead of watching TV at my paintings, icons, stained glass — an illustration of life in images. The great master worked on the ordering of the Church's great tradition covered it all.
Today people go to Church much less, and generalized picture of life gives TV. But there is no great tradition, no art here. Nothing but massacre and shooting, you will not find it. Television has been the expansion of people's consciousness. In my opinion, it is a criminal organization, subordinate to the anti-social interests.
From the screen there is only one call: "get rich by any means — theft, violence, fraud!"The question of cultural development is the question of the future of the country. The state can not exist unless it is based on culture.
And not only of money or military force to strengthen its position in the world. What can we do today to attract our former Republic? Only culture! In the Soviet era they exist within our culture.
Compare the level of development of Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics — a huge difference! And now all these countries have fallen out of our cultural space. And, in my opinion, the most important task now is to revisit them in this space back.
After the collapse of the British Empire, essential tools for the restoration of the integrity of the English-speaking world culture and education. The British opened the doors of its institutions of higher education to the natives of the colonies. Primarily for those who later would become Manager of the new countries.
I recently spoke with Estonians — they are willing to study medicine in Russia. But we take them a lot of money for school. Despite the fact that the opportunity to study in America or England they get nothing. And than we can those of the Estonians to attract the interaction with us they became more important than cooperation with the West?
In France there is a Ministry of the Francophonie, which promotes cultural policy of France in the world. In England, the British Council is a non-governmental organization, but in fact draws a clear policy for the dissemination of English culture, a global English influence in the world. So the issues of culture are intertwined with policy issues and national security. To neglect this crucial element of influence is impossible.In the modern world is increasingly science and art, but not the resources and productive forces determine the strength and future of the country.We destroyed ourselves
∗ is an Excerpt from an interview in 2008.—
How many now it will take years to make Russian science once again regained lost ground?
— My father in 1935, Stalin left the Soviet Union two years building his Institute. We have over the past 15 years, no research Institute has been built and ruined almost everything.
— In the mass consciousness there was a steady stereotype: disorder of the country is the diversion of the West. And what do you think caused this: our carelessness, stupidity, or the struggle for the redivision of the world, to a strong and powerful country to be lowered to a certain limit and then her milk: oil — gas, oil-gas?
Such attempts were, but they were unsuccessful. We destroyed ourselves.
At the Council of Ministers a few years ago, decided to allocate 12 million roubles for apartments for young scientists. And at this time scandal with the public Prosecutor, who repaired his apartment for 20 million. I was hooked for it and said that, if you have allocated 12 billion for apartments for young scientists, you could get a fix. And all the meaningless half-measures. And ended with the words:"If you continue to pursue such a policy, we get a country of fools. This will be easier to rule the country, but the future of this country does not have"
. Came the scandal and the President said I agree with the thoughts of Professor Kapitza, but not with its wording.
— As you are among the stress, the struggle, the offense managed to maintain such energy, sharpness of mind?
—You need to be able to find their cause.
When I was chased away from the television, I started demography. When I couldn't deal with the accelerator, and found something else to do. And this happened a few times in my life.
And then, I have example of my father. After all the father after Beria was removed from the leadership of the Institute for physical problems and the oxygen industry, 8 years at least and within the country, but, in fact, in exile in the country. I then also fired from TSAGI, career in aviation did not take place. I began to help his father, and together began to engage in experimental work for the study of flow of thin liquid films.
What is the end? Last year I was introduced to the Council of the award "global energy". And one of the prize winners — Englishman — got it just for studying of those films dealt with my father, and touchingly stated this while receiving the award!
— It turns out that the main secret of longevity is the passion?— Of course! And then everything will be fine.It is time to implement good
— Sergey, could you please explain this discrepancy. Today, the Internet has connected the world into a single network, develop nano-technology, are under active study stem cells, cloning... it would Seem that scientists are doing to human life became easy and comfortable. But in reality, people still get sick a lot, live a little and hard.
— I think the fact that society can not properly dispose of their knowledge.
— And how can you blame society? Say, for example, they say, people are to blame for that drink too much, because it is wrong to use vodka — Mendeleev discovered it for scientific purposes. Well, as it still used? Only lotions? Or take the nuclear weapons...
— Nuclear weapons — the most terrible example. Dream about the biggest bomb has brought humanity to an impasse. The great happiness that during all these revolutions that swept through the world, not a nuclear disaster happened.
Now nuclear arsenals are reduced, but slowly. And humanity must learn to live with this evil. But the problem of nuclear weapons is not only technical. It is also a problem of human consciousness and education.
See, in America, are all weapons — including school children and people with unhealthy psyche. Weapons have become more accessible and human brains — less stable. This instability — response to technical progress that our consciousness does not have time to master the same technique we created. From my point of view, this is one of the deepest crises of the modern world.
So nothing better than a proper education you can imagine! It requires a lot of work done that has no breaks. But if we don't think about this problem seriously, humanity will come to ruin, the first signs of which can already be seen in the public consciousness. To think that a society can drift anywhere — the path to suicide. Because man differs from the animal only by the culture. Although the animals are not so primitive — they too have prohibitions.Animals don't eat themselves — wolves wolves do not eat. Unlike people who easily "devour" their own kind.
And it has good and important not only to create, but also actively implemented. After all, the same commandment "thou shalt Not kill" is self-explanatory — it requires execution.Trainspotting foreign technologies
— And why humanity was the weak link of progress? Computers have become superconvergence, and we have remained the same as a million years ago.
— And you look at the same computers. They have, roughly speaking, the "hardware" and software. Software is 10-20 times more expensive hardware, because the product of intellectual work to create much heavier. So it is with humanity. Hardware — energy weapons — we have plenty. And the software — call it cultural potential — behind.
— At the computer, at least, the problem of "iron" solution, but medical science still can not solve the problems of the human body.
— There is already a lot depends on you: whether you drank away your life, whether stress overload. And the brain, unfortunately, wears out much faster body. In America there is an old woman, whom almost under 100 years, they live their lives in loneliness, in hotels, suffering from Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Pathetic! It turns out that the soul dies before the body. But this is wrong: you need to die together! (Laughs.)
But still, we even influenza and the common cold can't win! About cancer not talking!
In this case, first of all, we need early diagnosis. If the time to notice the disease, the chances of a cure are increasing greatly. But such procedures require a lot of money, and qualified doctors and technicians. If devices for early diagnosis were not available only to the rich, the death rate from cancer would be reduced.
In due time — "in the life", as I say, I was involved in development of accelerators. They have two areas of application. First — the safety of nuclear reactor vessels. But with their help it was possible to cure people of cancer. The device worked on the diseased body, not touching anything around. Before the country collapsed, we had done 6 cars: one is still working at the Institute named after Herzen, passed through it 20 thousand people.
To provide the entire Soviet Union, had 1,000 cars, and we were ready to produce them. But then, in the era of monstrous chaos to Russian officials, the Germans came and said,
"We'll give you a billion loan, so you can buy our machines". As a result, we were planted on the needle German technology. We wrote letters that we have, and clinical experience, and that our machines are cheaper to operate, and I answered, saying that to change the situation, you need to give such and such an official 20% "rollback". And so — in all areas.
On one of his last meetings with the audience, Mr. Jackson said:
— 20 years ago it seemed to me that the main problem on our planet is the problem of the world because we were armed to the teeth, and who knows where this military force was able to bring us to. Now, I think we need to go to the very essence of our existence — population growth, growth of culture, the purpose of our lives.
The world, and not only our nation, is experiencing profound change in their development, that do not understand neither politicians nor most people. Why does this change, what it involves, how to affect him and how to react? Now people have to understand this, because before acting, you have to understand. When I figure that out, be sure to tell you."
Now we should understand whether we do without it? published
Author: Andrey Russian
P. S. And remember, just changing your mind — together we change the world! ©