After the energy crisis of 70-ies, many European countries are thinking about the environmental problems of the modern world. Uncontrolled consumption of natural resources
and energy they had replaced the development of environmental projects.
Countries varied as outside – has signed international agreements (e.g. Kyoto Protocol) and within – save state and energy tightened the requirements for commercial and municipal facilities.
But if the influence of the owners of such buildings are quite simple, the problem of energy consumption of private buildings decide still. To heat homes and provide electricity, many States spend 40% of all energy resources of the country.
Thus, according to experts, in Russia this figure can be reduced by the same 40% as now domestic houses have very low energy efficiency. How to influence this indicator?
Energy efficiency in Russia. State the impact of
the Struggle for energy began in Russia in the 2000s. One of the first regulating this direction of documents became the SNiP "Thermal protection of buildings", released in 2003
and designed to increase the energy efficiency of domestic homes.
Without the necessary economic incentive building regulations was not given a full result and in 2009 was reinforced by the Federal law "On energy saving
and energy efficiency".
According to the document all input or in the operation of the building must meet the requirements for energy efficiency and have energy metering devices. To check the energy efficiency of buildings was asked by the organization which is eligible for an energy audit.
The state took the responsibility to support energy efficiency projects and to assist in the construction of apartment buildings with a high energy efficiency class. While the private sector these rules, and consequently, the state support does not apply.
In the eleventh Chapter of the Federal law stated that the objects of individual housing (detached and can accommodate a single family residential building height is not above three floors), summer houses and garden houses energy-efficient requirements do not apply.
State program 2010-year "energy Saving and energy efficiency for the period till 2020" has affected power generation, heating, industry, transport, state institutions and housing.
In the framework of the plan to decommission old inefficient equipment
and install, to innovate and to use a progressive device
in the process of new construction and modernization.
Among the measures to improve the efficiency of the housing stock: the installation of metering devices of hot water, heat and gas, insulation of apartments, replacement of old refrigerators and washing machines.
Also in the framework of the plan to install fluorescent lamps and LEDs
in "system housing lighting". By 2020, their share should be 83%.
These measures will help to save 330 billion cubic metres of gas, electricity 630 billion KWh, heat — 1550 mln Gcal, oil products — 17 million tons. Implement the program in two phases: the first phase 2010-2015, the second one is 2016-2020 years.Passive house and energy-saving European countries
In Europe, the issue of efficiency of the houses was found quite a long time. And this is predictable, since the motivation of the population in European countries is much stronger: if in Russia, according to "RIA Rating" the cost of a kWh in rubles equal to 2.9, in Germany 7.5 times higher and 21.9.
The energy consumption of houses in Europe, reduce through technology "passive house". Passive house, or as they are called "energy saving" and "green buildings", especially popular in Germany, are also found in France and Sweden.
From my "colleagues" they have low level of energy consumption. Most of the needed resources to get them due to natural factors. For example, a window so that natural light coming in to the house as long as possible and use artificial light had less.
Retain heat in the home due to the good thermal insulation of walls and Windows, trying to minimise the use of heating device. In a particularly eco-friendly houses even create reservoirs to collect rain water.
Due to what can you save?
In Russia, such buildings are rare, because, as we have said above, for homes energy-efficient requirements do not apply, sufficient financial motivation there.
But the German experience suggests that the technologies used in passive houses is really a help save. Invested in the energy efficiency of 8-10% of the total cost of housing be repaid there for several years.
So, equipping highly efficient system of thermal insulation of walls, ceiling, floor, attic
and basement, you will reduce heat loss from 250 to 300 KW per sq m to 15 KW. Keep warm will help and high-quality Windows.
Windows with good insulation will keep the house almost 70% more heat than usual. Windows with multifunctional glass stabilize the temperature in the home not only in winter but in summer.
Thanks to a special coating, they will keep the house bright sunlight
and will keep the room cool without using air conditioning. Heat recovery system – return of materials or energy for reuse – also stabilizes the temperature in the room.
Reduce electricity consumption in private homes
Despite the fact that energy efficient homes is a preference for natural light, completely abandon artificial light impossible. Install the lamps in the house still have to, because energy efficiency in Russia it is necessary to organize with regard to natural factors. For example, we should not forget that in the winter on the outside before it gets dark.
It is important not just to place the lights, but also to provide sufficient light levels, as the lack of light impairs vision. As much as possible will reduce energy costs motion sensors, presence and light.
Motion sensors suitable for those rooms in which you visit periodically. Place the device in the closet, in the hallway or pantry and don't worry about that forgot to turn off the light. When you leave the room, the motion sensor will notice this and will automatically turn off the lamps.
The occupancy sensors have high sensitivity that detects even the smallest movement. Unlike the motion sensor, presence sensor "sees" you not only when you move around the room, but when you skim while reading.
Such devices are suitable for office, home library or baths. For bathroom it is important to set it sensor suitable for wet areas and had a degree of protection IP65, as a mini-presence detector PICO-M-1C.
The light sensor measures the lighting level in the room and if it does not match the specified threshold, includes an additional lamp. Most often this device is used to enable facade and landscape lighting.
If you usually get home late, the light sensor you need. He decides two functional problems: turn on the lights when natural light is not enough, and in time will turn them off in the morning.Reduce the consumption of electricity in apartment buildings
to Increase energy efficiency is already built apartment buildings is difficult: improvement of the thermal insulation of the walls will be a problem, and the ventilation system is not changed.
To improve the energy characteristics of multifamily dwellings, it is possible to automate the lighting inside apartments and in the hallways. This will not only improve the energy efficiency of the house, but also reduce electricity consumption.
About home lighting in General and automation of the light in individual rooms, e.g. the bedroom, we have already talked on the blog, so today let's talk about automation lighting
in the hallways.
First and foremost, the lighting in the hallways automatiseret in the stairwells. For this purpose, presence sensors with connection Master&Slave or motion sensors.
For a project suitable ceiling motion sensors series PD3N, as well as outdoor motion sensor LC-Click-N 200.
If there is an internal car Park, to save power we need to automate the lighting there. Arrange for automatic lighting of car Parking sensor will help PD4N-1C.
This ceiling motion sensor large coverage area is 24 meters. In parallel, you can connect several of these sensors for each group of lighting. On each of them you can install protective anti-vandal mesh.
With the help of the sensor will decrease the average length of Parking lot lighting, about
from 24 to 8 hours. In the same ratio will be reduced and payment for electricity.
Energy efficient home is a safe investment. You will pay more once,
and to save energy will more than a dozen years. published