Deadly immunity, or why an increasing number of children with autism
Seventy four million eight hundred nineteen thousand eight hundred forty eight
In June 2000, a group of prominent government scientists and health officials gathered for a meeting in a remote meeting room in NORCROSS, Georgia. Convened by the Center for control and prevention (CDC), the meeting was held in a small Methodist center in the middle of nowhere, so to maintain maximum secrecy. The organizers have not made any public statements about this conference — only 52 participants of the meeting received a private invitation. Among them were top officials of the centers for disease control and Management control food and drug administration (FDA), the main expert on vaccines from the world health organization in Geneva and representatives from all major vaccine manufacturers, including the "Glaxo Smith Kline", "Merck", "Viet" and "Aventis Pasteur". All are discussing scientific data, which is constantly reminded to the participants the officials of the Center for disease control, was "strictly secret". Participants are not allowed to make photocopies of documents, and at the end of the conference they had no right to bring any records.
Federal officials and representatives of pharmaceutical companies gathered to discuss the alarming results of a recent study that raised important questions related to the security of most of the main vaccines administered to neonates and young children. According to the epidemiologist of the CDC Tom Verstraeten, which analysed the database of the center, which includes medical cards to 100,000 children in the vaccine mercury preservative thimerosal is the cause of the dramatic growth of autism and other neurological disorders among children. "I was literally shocked at what I found," said Verstraeten gathered in Simpsonwood, citing a huge amount of previous research that found a link between thimerosal and childhood diseases such as delay in speech development, attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, autism. Since 1991, when the CDC and the FDA, food and drug recommended for children three additional vaccines that use preservative (in some cases vaccinations do children in the first hours of life), the incidence of autism has increased 15-fold (from 1 child to 2 500 children earlier to 1 in 166 now).
Even for doctors who by the nature of its activities deal with issues of life and death, these data sounds scary. "You can do anything,' said bill Weil, a consultant to the American Academy of Pediatrics — but the results are statistically significant". Dr. Richard Johnston, an immunologist and pediatrician from the University of Colorado whose grandson was born on the first day of the conference, was concerned about the most. "You want to know how I feel? he asked. — Forgive me this personal comment, but I don't want my grandson got the vaccine with thimerosal, until we figure out what's really going on".
However, rather than alert the public and stop the use of thimerosal in children's vaccines, officials in Simpsonnude most of the time spent to discuss how to hide from the public the threat data. According to the transcript obtained through the Act on freedom of information, the majority of participants were concerned about how these threat data thimerosal will affect the pharmaceutical industry. "We are at a disadvantage from the point of view of the trial, said Dr. Robert Brent, a pediatrician from children's hospital Alfred I. DuPont in Delaware. — We will become prey for the lawyers of the plaintiffs". Dr. Bob Chen, head of vaccine safety of the centers for disease control, noticed with relief that "given the extreme importance of this information, we are able to keep it from the strangers, so to say, less responsible hands." Dr. John Clements, an Advisor on vaccines to the world health organization, said that the study "may not have been spending at all." He added that "the results of the study should be treated appropriately," warning that it "can be used by outsiders, and we will not be able to get this under control."
In fact, the government was much more concerned about what to do with the detected harm than protecting children's health. The CDC paid the Institute of medicine for the conduct of a new study designed to rehabilitate thimerosal, ordering researchers to eliminate the relationship between thimerosal and autism. The CDC hid the results of studies Verstraeten, although they were intended for immediate publication, and told other scientists that the data is "lost" and can not be restored. In contradiction to the Act on freedom of information, the whole giant database of vaccinations were transferred to private companies, and scientists access to it was limited. By the time Verstraeten finally published his study in 2003, he has worked for the company "Glaxo Smith Kline" and reworked his data to hide a connection between autism and thimerosal.
Vaccine manufacturers had already begun to remove thimerosal from vaccines intended for American newborns, but until last year, continued at a discount to sell stocks of mercury containing vaccines. The center for disease control and FDA food and drug handed them a helping hand, buying stained vaccine thimerosal for sale in developing countries and allowing drug companies to continue to use this preservative in some vaccines in America, including children's flu vaccines and vaccines against tetanus, a planned input of eleven children.
Pharmaceutical companies receive support from some influential lawmakers in Washington. Senate majority leader bill frist, has received 873 thousands of dollars in donations from the pharmaceutical industry, working hard to help the vaccine manufacturers to avoid liability in more than 4,200 lawsuits, started by parents of affected children. Five times the frist was trying to hide government documents related to vaccines, including documents of Simpsonwood and tried to protect "Eli Lilly", the manufacturer of thimerosal, from challenges in court.
In 2002, the day after frist, without attracting attention, introduced an amendment, known as the "Act on the protection of 'Eli Lilly'" the Law on the security of the Fatherland (Homeland Security bill), "Eli Lilly" has donated $ 10,000 to the campaign frista and bought 5,000 copies of his book on bioterrorism. The amendment was repealed by Congress in 2003 but earlier this year, frist spent another amendment to the law on anti-terrorism, resulting in the children suffering from diseases of the brain as a result of vaccination, were denied compensation. "Trials are so strong that can destroy the business of the vaccine manufacturers and to limit our ability to cope with bioacademy terrorists," said Dean Rosen, a legislative assistant frista health.
Even many conservatives were shocked by the efforts made by the government in order to conceal information about the dangers of thimerosal. Dan Burton, Republican from Indiana, was born three-year investigation of thimerosal after his grandson was diagnosed with autism. In its conclusions, the Committee on government reform, house of representatives, stated that "thimerosal used in vaccines as a preservative, is linked to the autism epidemic". "This epidemic in all probability could be prevented or reduced in size, if Management control of food and drugs drew attention to the lack of safety data on injected thimerosal, a known neurotoxin". "Control of food and medicines and other healthcare facilities has not taken action, said the Committee committing misconduct in order to protect their interests... and showing misplaced protectionism for the pharmaceutical industry".
The story of how government health organization in collusion with big Pharma have tried to hide from the public information about the dangers of thimerosal is a story of corporate arrogance, of power and greed. I was involved in this conflict against their will. As a lawyer and specialist in environmental issues for many years working on issues of mercury toxicity, I frequently met with the parents of autistic children who were absolutely sure that their children have suffered from vaccination. To be honest, at first I was skeptical.
I doubted that autism could be caused by only one reason, and I was absolutely convinced that the government must convince parents of the safety of vaccinations depends on the eradication of deadly childhood diseases. I was inclined to agree with the skeptic Henry Waxman (Democrat from California), who criticized his colleagues from the Committee on government reform for the rush to judgment about the connection of autism with vaccination. "We should not scare people vaccination, stated Waksman, at one of the hearings, yet we don't know all the facts".
And only after reading simpsonpussy materials, after meeting with leading scientific research on this subject after conversations with top national experts on mercury, I was convinced that the link between thimerosal and the epidemic of childhood neurological disorders is definitely there. Five of my children belong to the thimerosal generation — those born between 1989 and 2003 they received a large dose of mercury in vaccines. "Elementary schools are overflowing with children who have symptoms of neurological damage or disorders of the immune system, — said in 1999, representatives of the Committee on government reform Patti white, school nurse. — We assumed that vaccinations are designed to make our children healthier, but in 25 years of work in school I have never seen so many sick children. I feel that our children are doing something very, very wrong."
Currently, more than 500,000 children suffer from autism, and every year pediatricians diagnose more than 40,000 new cases. The disease was unknown until 1943, when it was first described and diagnosed in 11 children, born a few months after thimerosal was first used in children's vaccines in 1931.
Some skeptics dispute that the cause of autism are vaccines thimerosal. They argue that the increase in the incidence of autism is associated with the fact that he learned the best way to diagnose — theory is at best controversial, because the majority of new cases of autism occur in children of one generation. "If the epidemic is really only the result of better diagnosis — ironically says Dr. Boyd Haley, one of the world authorities in the field of mercury toxicity, then where are all the twenty-year-old autistic?" Other scientists point out that Americans can accumulate a much higher amount of mercury in the body than it was before, because mercury is contained in fish and in dental amalgam, therefore, thimerosal is only part of a much larger problem. I am sure that this problem deserves much more attention than it is given now, but it is clear that the concentration of mercury in vaccines overshadows all other sources of possible contamination by mercury of our children.
What is most shocking in this story is the effort that included many leading investigators to ignore or hide the truth about thimerosal. From the beginning the scientific evidence against mercury additives was extremely convincing. Preservative used to delay the growth of fungi and bacteria in vaccines, contains ethyl mercury, a powerful neurotoxin. Many studies have shown that mercury tends to accumulate in the brains of primates and other animals after they receive an injection of this vaccine, and that the developing brain of the baby is extremely vulnerable. In 1977, a Russian study found that adults who were administered ethyl mercury in a much lower concentration than that received by American children, years later, still suffering from brain damage. Russia banned thimerosal in vaccines 20 years ago (this is the author's mistake, mercury is still used in the Russian vaccines. — A. K.), and Denmark, Austria, Japan, great Britain and all the Scandinavian countries followed suit.
"You will not be able to come up with a study proving the safety of thimerosal, says Dr. Haley, head of the chemistry Department of the University of Kentucky. — He is terribly, terribly toxic. If you inject thimerosal animal, his brain will be damaged. If you inject thimerosal into living tissue, the cells die. If you put thimerosal in a Petri dish, it will kill the culture. Knowing this, it is simply impossible to assume that someone is able to enter the thimerosal infants, without fear of consequences."
Internal documents prove that "Eli Lilly", which developed thimerosal, knew from the beginning that it can cause injury and even death to animals and people. In 1930, the company tested thimerosal by entering its twenty-two patients with meningitis in the last stage; all of them died a few weeks after injection. This fact "Eli Lilly" did not bother to mention in the report, declared that thimerosal is safe. In 1935 scientists other pharmaceutical companies, "Pittman-Moore," warned the "Lilly" that recent evidence on the safety of thimerosal "not supported by their research." Half of the dogs used in the research, "Pittman" was introduced vaccines with thimerosal was ill, which has led scientists to the conclusion that the preservative "unsatisfactory as a drug for use in dogs".
In subsequent decades, evidence against the use of thimerosal continued to accumulate. During the Second world war the Ministry of defense used the preservative in vaccines for soldiers, but demanded from "Lilly" to label it "poison." In 1967, a study published in "Applied Microbiology" (Applied Microbiology) showed that thimerosal kills the mouse, her being introduced in the vaccine composition. Four years later own research, "Lilly" showed that thimerosal "toxic to tissue cells" in concentrations of less than one per million — 100 times weaker than the concentration in a typical vaccine. And even despite this, the company continued to promote thimerosal as "poisonous", and included it in the composition of local disinfectants. In 1977, in a hospital in Toronto died ten children after their umbilical cord was treated with antiseptic, which included thimerosal.
In 1982, the control of food and medicines offered to forbid to sell without a prescription drugs that contain thimerosal, and in 1991 it was decided to ban the use of thimerosal in vaccines for animals. It is tragic that in the same 1991 the CDC recommended to vaccinate newborns with vaccines containing mercury. A newborn baby had to be vaccinated against hepatitis b In first 24 hours of life, and at the age of 2 months they were supposed to be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae and diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis.
The pharmaceutical industry knew the additional vaccines are dangerous. In the same year, when the CDC approved the new vaccines, Dr. Maurice Hilleman, one of the founders of the program of vaccination of Merck, has warned the company that six-month-old children, which introduced the vaccine will be in very grave danger of mercury poisoning. He recommended to ban the use of thimerosal, "especially in vaccines for infants and children," noting that the industry is known for non-toxic alternatives. "The best," he continues, "is to use vaccines that do not contain preservatives".
The stumbling block for "Merc" and other pharmaceutical companies have the money. Thimerosal has allowed the pharmaceutical industry to put vaccine in vials that contain multiple doses, which require additional precautions because of the danger of contamination of the vaccine, since it is necessary several times to insert the needle into the vial. Producing large vials (multiple doses) two times cheaper than the small (one dose), which facilitates and reduces the cost of export of vaccines in poor third world countries, where there is always the risk of epidemics. Faced with prices that Merck ignored warnings of Gilleman, and government officials continued to promote more and more childhood vaccines with thimerosal. Before 1989, American preschoolers received only three vaccines — polio, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles–mumps–rubella. A decade later, thanks to Federal recommendations, children were to receive a total of twenty-two vaccinations before they reached the age at which you go to first class.
With increasing number of vaccination has exploded and the incidence of autism among children. In the 1990s, 40 million children were vaccinated with vaccines containing thimerosal, and children thus received unprecedented high levels of mercury during critical brain development period. Despite the well-documented data about the dangers of thimerosal, it seemed that nobody was concerned that mandatory vaccinations children receive a cumulative dose of mercury. "Why is the control of food and medicines so long conducted the calculations? — asked Peter Patriarca, Director of viral preparations Control in your e-mail to the Center for disease control in 1999 — Why is the CDC and other Advisory bodies is not carried out all the calculations before sharply increased the number of mandatory vaccinations?"
But by that time the damage was already done. At the age of two months, when the newborn's brain is still in a critical period of development, infants receive vaccinations according to the schedule three vaccines, containing together to 62.5 mcg of ethyl mercury that 99 times greater than the daily level of income set by the Office for environmental protection (EPA) for methylmercury, a related neurotoxin. Although the vaccine manufacturers claim that atitute is a slight risk because it breaks down rapidly and is removed from the body, several studies, including published in April by the National Institute of health (NIH), show that ethyl mercury is actually more toxic to developing brain, and remains in it for longer than methylmercury.
Officials responsible for childhood immunizations insist that the additional vaccines were necessary to protect infants from disease and that thimerosal is still essential in developing Nations, which often, say officials, can't afford disposable vials, which do not require preservatives. Dr. Paul Offit, one of the leading advisors to the CDC on vaccines, said to me: "I think if we do face a flu pandemic — and it certainly will happen in the next 20 years, and this is already happening — we can't vaccinate 280 million vaccines from disposable bottles. Absolutely necessary reusable".
However, some health officials may be acting in good faith, the majority of the members of the Committee for vaccines Center for disease control who protect additional vaccinations, have close ties with the industry vaccines. Dr. Sam Katz, Chairman of the Committee, was a paid consultant to most major manufacturers of vaccines, was part of the group that developed the measles vaccine and licensed it in 1963, Another Committee member, Dr. Neal Halsey, conducted research for companies that produce vaccines, and received a fee from laboratories "Abbott" for the development of a vaccine against hepatitis B.
In fact, in this narrow circle of scientists working on vaccines, such conflicts of interest it is quite familiar. Republican Burton stated that the Center for disease control "usually allows scientists with obvious conflicts of interests to participate as consultants in the work of the Advisory committees that recommend new vaccines," even if they have undeniable "interest in the production and operation of companies that they are supposed to impartially control it." Committee on government reform of the house of representatives found that four of the eight consultants of the CDC, approved the use of thimerosal containing vaccines against rotavirus, "had financial ties with pharmaceutical companies that produced several versions of this vaccine."
Offit who has a joint patent on a vaccine, the vaccine confirmed to me that he "earns the money" if his vote helps to ensure that the vaccine will enter the market. But he refuted my assumption that the direct financial interest of scientists in a positive solution to the Center for disease control can affect their conclusion. "For me, in this situation there is no contradiction — he insists. — I was just informed about the process, but in any case not involved in it. When I'm sitting at this table, my mind trying to make a solution that would not harm the health of children in this country. Offensive to hear allegations that doctors and health officials are in the pay of vaccine manufacturers, and therefore make decisions that can affect children. This is not so."
Other scientists and officials relevant to vaccines, gave me a similar explanation. Like Office, they think of themselves as enlightened guardians of children's health, proud of its free from personal gain "partnership" with the pharmaceutical companies, and beset by crazy activists whose antiprivivochnaya campaign threaten children's health. They resent questions of this kind. "Science, says Offit, — that is the lot of scientists."
Some government officials were, however, concerned about a possible conflict of interest. In his email to the administrators of the Center for disease control in 1999, Paul Patriarca, an employee of the office of control of food and drugs, accused state officials of failing to assess the real risk of additional childhood vaccines. He wrote: "I think it would be difficult not to recognize that the Management control of food and drugs, the centers for disease control and institutions responsible for vaccination policy that could sleep through their job, but because we have today a vaccine thimerosal". Close ties between officials and the pharmaceutical industry, he added, raise questions about many of the advisors, thanks to the insistent recommendations of which we use today, children's vaccines with thimerosal.
If Federal officials over the years not to recognize the potential risk of using thimerosal, after secret conference in Simpsonwood no one could plead ignorance. But instead to continue the study to check the relationship of thimerosal to autism and other forms of brain damage, the CDC put politics above science. He gave the entire database on childhood vaccines, which was created mainly with taxpayers ' money, the private Agency "Americas khelz of insurers plans", making sure that the data will not be used in further studies. The CDC also instructed the Institute of medicine, an Advisory organization that is part of the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study that denied the link between thimerosal and diseases of the brain. The center for disease control, "requires us to we said, there is no danger, said Dr. Mary McCormick, the head of the Committee for the study of vaccine safety the Institute of medicine, colleagues, scientists at the first meeting in January 2001 — We are not going to recognize the fact that autism is a side effect of the use of thimerosal". According to the transcript of the meeting, a senior staff member of the Committee, Kathleen Stratton predicted that the Institute of medicine will come to the conclusion that the evidence was "insufficient evidence to confirm or deny a causal link" between autism and thimerosal. It will be a response to "the desire of Walt," she said, referring to Walt Orenstein, Director National immunization program of the centers for disease control.
Those who dedicate their lives to promoting vaccination, the revelations about thimerosal would destroy everything they worked. "We caught a dragon by the tail, said Dr. Michael Cabak, another member of the Committee. — The more we reveal the negativity, the less people will want to use a vaccination, and what it may bring, we know. We got into some sort of trap. The question is how to get out of it".
Even in public statements, Federal officials clearly state that their primary goal in studying thimerosal is to dispel all doubts about the vaccines. "Four studies currently being carried out to exclude a possible link between autism and thimerosal use of — said at a meeting at Princeton University in may 2001, Dr. Gordon Douglas, then Director of the Department of strategic planning in vaccine research, National institutes of health. In order to overcome the harmful effects of research claiming connection [measles] vaccine to an increased risk of autism, we need to conduct more research and publish their results to convince parents of the safety of vaccines." Douglas was a former President of the vaccine division of Merck and ignored a warning about the dangers of using thimerosal.
In may last year, the Institute of medicine issued its final report. Conclusion: proven link of autism and thimerosal contained in vaccines, no. Instead of the rich literature on the toxicity of thimerosal, the report is based on four disastrously defective epidemiological studies conducted in European countries, where children received much smaller dose of thimerosal than American kids. The report also has a link to a new version of the work Verstraeten published in the journal "Pediatrics" (Pediatrics), in which all data is processed in such a way as to reverse the connection of thimerosal and autism. Work included data for children too young to diagnose them with autism, and ignored other children who showed signs of the disease. The Institute of medicine said that the case was closed and (odd for a scientific organization, position) recommended not to pursue further research on this issue (read more about the report, see analytical materials group "Seyf Minds" "something is rotten in the Danish Kingdom" and "Analysis "Seyf Minds" report of the Institute of medicine: mistakes, fraud and conflict of interest" in pdf format. — A. K.)
Report quite satisfied the CDC, but did not convince anyone. Republican representative David Weldon, a physician from Florida, a member of the Committee on government reform of the house of representatives, strongly criticized the Institute of medicine, stating that in his conclusions he relied on a handful of studies that were "fatally defective" as its "bad design" and did not provide "all the modern medical and scientific data". Weldon told me that officials of the CDC are not interested in the truth, because "any Association of vaccines and autism is to get them to admit that their policies have caused irreparable harm to thousands of children. Who's ready to make such conclusions about yourself?"
In February, the new congregation, composed of different scientists, criticized how Verstraeten in his study used this database and the previous Congress for the lack of transparency and urged the CDC to make public its database on vaccines.
However, so far, only two scientists have managed to achieve access to it. Dr. mark Geyer, President of the American genetic center and his son, David, spent a year fighting to get health information from the centers for disease control. Since August 2002, when members of Congress began to put pressure on the CDC to published data, the Geyser has completed six studies that demonstrated a clear link thimerosal and neurological damage in children. One study comparing cumulative doses of mercury in children born between 1981 and 1985, children born 1990 to 1996, he discovered a "correlation" between autism and vaccinations. Another study on the problems of education, found that children who received higher doses of thimerosal in vaccines, three times more likely to have diagnosed autism, and they are three times more likely to suffer from speech disorders and mental retardation. Another study that will be published soon, shows that the incidence of autism is declining after thimerosal recently removed from most vaccines.
While Federal officials try not to allow scientists to study the vaccine, others are involved in the study of the relationship of vaccinations and autism. In April, the journalist of "Yu-Pee-ay" Dan Olmsted independently conducted one of the most interesting studies. In search of children that have never been exposed to mercury from vaccines — the part of population that scientists typically called the control group — olmstead left the Amish (Amish) of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania who refuse to vaccinate babies. Given the national statistics on the incidence of autism, Olmsted calculated that among the Amish there should be 130 autistics. He found only four. One of them was poisoned, after receiving a high dose of mercury from power plants. Three others, including one adopted child was vaccinated.
At the state level, many officials have also conducted thorough studies of thimerosal. While the Institute of medicine was busy with evidence of absence of risk, the lawmakers of Iowa have carefully studied all available scientific and biological data. "After three years of careful study of the problem, I was convinced that it has already held competent enough research to understand that there is a connection between mercury poisoning and the number of cases of autism, said Republican Senator Ken Vinstra, who oversaw the investigation. — The fact that in Iowa the increase in the incidence of autism, which reached 700% began in the 1990s, immediately after increased the number of mandatory vaccines for children in itself may constitute serious evidence." Last year, Iowa became the first state to ban vaccines with mercury, followed by California. Such a ban is now under consideration in 32 other States.
However, rather than to follow this example, control of food and medicines continue to allow vaccine manufacturers to use thimerosal in many medicines that you can buy without a prescription, as well as steroids and collagen injections. Even more disturbing is the fact that the government continues to send vaccines to thimerosal in developing countries, and some of them already was a sudden epidemic of autism. In China, where about autism actually didn't know until then, until there appeared thimerosal American manufacturers in 1999 and is now news reported 1.8 million autistics. Although it is difficult to reliably judge the number of autistic children, but it is now clear that autism is distributed in India, Argentina, Nicaragua and in some other developing countries where the currently used vaccine thimerosal. The world health organization continues to insist that thimerosal is completely harmless, although promises to "keep under control" the possible Association of thimerosal and neurological diseases.
I spent time exploring this issue, because I think that with the current crisis it is necessary to do something. And if, as testimony has shown, our health officials knowingly allowed the pharmaceutical industry to poison an entire generation of American children, their actions can lead to one of the biggest scandals in the history of American medicine. "The CDC is guilty of incompetence and gross negligence, says mark Blaxill, Vice-President of "Seyf Minds", a nonprofit organization concerned about mercury in medicines. — The damage inflicted on vaccines is huge. It's worse than asbestos, worse than tobacco, the worst that we have ever seen."
It is difficult to calculate the damage done to our country, but also to international efforts to eradicate epidemic diseases-if third world countries finds that touted American aid is poisoning their children. It is easy to imagine how such a scenario will be interpreted by America's enemies abroad. Scientists who participated in the campaign to conceal the truth about thimerosal — and many of them sincere, even idealistic — say that they contribute to the great cause of children in developing Nations, pandemics. They are sorely mistaken. Their failure to recognize the truth about thimerosal hurt our country and the poorest people on our planet.
NOTE in the original article, published earlier, there were a few inaccuracies that are corrected in this version. It was reported that American preschoolers received only three vaccines until 1989, however, was not indicated that these vaccines they instilled in the aggregate eleven times, including revaccination. Incorrect was a statement regarding the amount of ethyl mercury received by infants from all vaccines by the age of 6 months. It amounted to 187 µg, which is 40%, not 187 times exceeds the MCL set by the Office for the protection of the environment for the daily receipt of methylmercury. Finally, because of an error in the editorial, the article contained incorrect information regarding rotavirus vaccine approved by the CDC. It did not contain thimerosal. "Salon" and "rolling stone," I'm sorry about these errors.
In the previously published version of the article argued that the Institute of medicine convened a second meeting to review the conclusions of the Committee on immunization safety, which found no evidence of a link between thimerosal and autism. In fact, the Institute of medicine convened a second meeting in order to respond to concerns about a database on vaccines expressed including critics of the previous report of the Institute of medicine. However, the meeting was not mandated to revise the conclusions of his predecessor. The article mistakenly swapped the two sentences in the quotation from Dr John Clements and stated that Dr. Sam Katz had a "merc" owner of a patent for a measles vaccine. Dr. Katz was part of the group that developed and provided the vaccine to licensing, but the owner of the patent has never been. "Salon" and "rolling stone," I'm sorry about these errors.