Savant - a person with extraordinary abilities, often in the area of accounts, art or music. However, he seems to be mentally retarded.
Such people are very rare. Sometimes savant abilities are not innate, but are the result of head injuries, particularly of the left hemisphere. Brain savants act as a single entity, without sharing functions hemispheres. And if one thing a man an idiot, or the other - absolute genius.
According to scientists, savants - is an example of what we could be. In the brain of a savant flow the same thought processes as a normal person. But the latter is included in the consciousness of the moment when the information is received by the brain is completely processed and formed the image of the object; we see and remember only significant. And savants do not go on private parts to the whole, and immediately have access to all the data bank of the brain. Therefore savants with autism may remember the unfathomable number of facts, numbers, numbers, maps and lists, text and music. In addition, they:
* Solve puzzling examples;
* Easily and accurately estimate the distance to objects;
* Can instantly determine which day of the week came in a predetermined number as many as 10 thousand years ago;
* Hours without know exactly how much time has passed since a given moment.
Why is that? Science is not known. Some savants have obvious neurological abnormalities, but the brain was also examined most anatomically and physiologically normal.
Relentless statistics show: the number of autistic slowly but steadily increasing, with the spread of the disease in some inexplicable way related to computers and high technology. For example, in the UK 10 years ago autism suffer one child in 500, today this figure has tripled. On the other side of the Atlantic is an absolute record in the number of autistic keeps Silicon Valley, the world patrimony of computer technology. Of course, prominent savants among them a bit, but the average IQ of most autistic twice higher than that of ordinary people. And surrounded by computers autistic at all feels like a fish in water; it is not surprising that many of them achieve excellent results in programming. Use of remarkable intellect feeble-minded geniuses in IT techno logiyah are very seductive; the first to be fully aware of the pros of this unusual personnel policy, was Bill Gates. According to unofficial information, the state of Microsoft's almost a quarter of autistic staffed. However, not all people with weak syndrome shroud, she has to be content with second roles. For example, US autistic Sarah Miller was able to take the presidency developer Nova Systems, a Peter Levy was one of the founders Accent Technologies. From emotional outpourings Sarah Miller you can learn how the world looks like a savant-programmer from the inside. "I can think only within the framework of a binary computer logic, - says Miller - only black and white, zero and one, no halftones. That is why the variety of nuances of feelings and emotions of other people plunges me into horror. Often, I find myself thinking that I think even in programming languages. " To work with computers such thinking is just perfect; Sarah Miller is able to catch the "bug" in the program, just take a quick look at the code. However, at business meetings it always accompanies personal psychologist to help "translate" the words of the business partners in the universal language of the binary language of autistic quirky.
There is hardly a mental illness that would be so untwisted Hollywood and at the same time would cause such a strong sympathy for the audience as savant syndrome. It was for the role of Raymond Babbitt, the mad genius of the movie "Rain Man", Dustin Hoffman was one of their "Oscars". Live in such an unusual way before filming, the actor talked a long time with one of the most famous contemporary savants Kim Peak. This choice is not accidental: working on the script for "Rain Man" writer Barry Morrow did Kim Peak prototype of his character. Later, speaking at a press conference, Dustin Hoffman, said: "I may have a star, but the heavens - it is Kim Peek." Barry Morrow and screenwriter "Rain Man": "Anyone who has ever spent five minutes with Kim, albeit in a small, but revised his view of himself, to the world, the true potential of the human being."
Kim crest the only person in the world, which is not just autistic savant. Kim - megasavant genius in not less than 15 things at once: mathematics, history, literature, music ...
Kim was born on November 11, 1951 in Salt Lake City, Utah, with cerebral hernia on the right side of the skull and an enlarged head. When he was 9 months old, doctors pronounced the verdict: "mentally retarded." Later, during the examination of the brain Peak, discovered that his hemispheres are not separated, and form a single storage area information.
In the 16-20 months baby memorized all the books he read the first time and did not allow them to re-read again. In three years he asked his parents what the word "confidential". So it turned out that he had long been able to read myself. Kim jokingly advised to see the meaning of the word in the dictionary. He looked. Somehow the child immediately understood how to navigate it.
Kimputer Today, the name of his family, remembers the more than 9,000 books. He knows all the roads of USA and Canada, the names of many professional athletes, actors and actresses, the content of the Bible and Mormon doctrine, historical dates, the works of Shakespeare codes. It is easy to identify classical music, calling at the same date of writing and biographical data composers. He knows the date of the battles of the great wars, and in the course of current events, is able to determine the day of the week that falls on any date. This difficulty dressing himself and forget how to brush their teeth ... The peak is not able to remember the sequence of movements; He learned to walk only 4 years old, and up the stairs - only in high school. He was and still every time barely remembers her defeat. Entire days of Kim Peek spends Public Library Salt Lake City. Thick book it is enough for 25 minutes of reading: megasavant read two pages at a time, one - the left eye and the other - right. On first reading it as a child, remembers the entire book.
"Rain Man" filmed on the basis of the life history of the Peak. The credit for unearthing his fate belongs to screenwriter Barry Morrow. Before that he wrote a script for a television movie about a mentally retarded man named Bill. After the film Morrow was invited to a meeting at the Association of mentally retarded people, where he met with Kim. Peak writer struck his phenomenal abilities, and Morrow once had the idea to write a script about it.
After the "Rain Man," Kim's life has changed dramatically. He ceased to live in a limited circle of relatives and friends began to meet people, learn to communicate and to face the other party. By the most conservative estimates, since 1988, when the film came out, I saw a peak of more than two million people, spending on travel over 100 days a year. Maybe because of "Rain Man" in the world will be less ice showers alienation? As Morrow said: "I think that anyone who has spent close to Kim at least five minutes, can not change his views on himself, the world and the possibility of man».
According to scientists, Kim Peek from year to year is becoming smarter. At the end of last year, it was decided that his brain is subjected to the study of the latest space technologies. Experts from NASA to compare the data of computed tomography and magnetic mapping with earlier tests of the most famous in the world of an autistic, after which it will set up a three-dimensional map of its brain. Scientists want to determine what happens in the mind peak when he thinks about things.
English architect (born in 1974). At 3 years was recognized as Autism. Says Steve learned only 9, and began to draw with 4 years old, four years hitting all his paintings, they were sketches of cities after the earthquakes. To demonstrate its unique capabilities, the Air Force organized a special TV show. London helicopter overflights of TV, right in front of the cameras Wiltshire drew a map of the city, in terms of accuracy and detail is not conceding aerial photography.
When Richard was three years old, he was diagnosed with "moderate-severe retardation", later recognized as autism. He could not learn to speak until the age of 11, and after the required cataract surgery his eyesight was so weak that he was officially recognized as a blind.
When he was still just learning to walk, he started to draw on the chalkboard. The local children's center, he began to draw with pastels and was soon spotted his talent for it. Professor Marian Bogusz-Szyszko (Marian Bohusz-Szyszko) of the Polish School of the Arts, said she was impressed by Richard drawings and described them as "an incredible phenomenon, represented with precision mechanics and the vision of the poet».
His first exhibition was held in Edinburgh, in 1969 - when he was 17 years old.
In the early 1970s, one of his exhibitions was opened by Margaret Thatcher, who was then education minister. She bought some of his works, as well as John Paul II.
Richard Wawro received the approval of his father on each picture, until his father died in 2002. In all, he has sold more than 1,000 pictures of about 100 exhibitions.
His original art was first introduced in the United States in 1977, the National Council of Teachers in the 'English Conference creativity gifted and talented »(« English conference on Creativity for the Gifted and Talented »), in New York. Richard Wawro life and his work became the plot of the documentary film, "With eyes wide open» («With Eyes Wide Open»), the world premiere of which took place in 1983 and has received numerous awards in many countries. Dr. Lawrence A. Becker, who made the film, said: "This film lets you know Richard Wawro as a very gifted artist. This film shows the care and education, which have allowed the spirit of Richard and his talent to grow and develop. It's even deeper than the "spirit requires freedom" - for him and for his drawing the viewer relieve. The life of this remarkable artist and his works provide abundant evidence of the high quality and endurance of the human creative spirit »
Richard Wawro died of lung cancer at age 54 in 2006.
When Alonzo Clemons was a child, he showed an uncanny ability to sculpt in clay amazingly detailed figures of animals, even those whom he has not seen alive. It was a talent that could have only a genius. But there was something puzzling: Alonzo could not even feed himself or tie his shoes. His IQ is not higher than 50.
Alonzo can see a fleeting image on a television screen of any animal, and less than 20 minutes to pile beautiful precise three-dimensional copy of this animal. Animal correct in every detail - every hair and muscle.
Since its premiere in 1986, the exhibition continues to sculpt Alonzo. His work is shown in Galleries Driscol in Aspen, Colorado. Alonzo steps to independence as impressive as his sculptures. Now he lives in his own apartment in Boulder.
Known autistic savants and
* Bhumi Jensen, or Khun Poom - grandson of Thai King Rama IX. He was killed during the December tsunami.
* Blind Tom - retarded genius pianist 1860s (USA), who had no musical education.
* Vito Mandzhamele - genius "accountant" in Sicily.
* Tony De Blois - US blind musician. Tony sat at the piano for the first time in two years, and now is able to play 20 musical instruments. He knows memory 8000 songs.
* Jonathan Lerman - autistic artist (USA) (born in 1987). Stop talking in two years, IQ just 53. But ten years, Jonathan began to draw charcoal portraits of genius, which is now displayed at major exhibitions.
* Leslie Lemke - a musician. Born in 1952 with glaucoma and brain damage. The boy removed the eye. His own mother abandoned him, and the child was adopted by nurse Mae Lemke. Already in early childhood Lesley showed the ability to completely memorize the talk. In 14 years, Mei first heard him play the piano by playing a tune that sounded on TV recently. Soon Leslie has performed concerts, and not just in the US but also in Scandinavia, and Japan. He not only performed, but also composes music, despite the lack of musical education.
* Tristan Mendoza - Filipino musician. With 2 years of playing the marimba - African percussion instrument.
* Presumably, some form of autism suffer Albert Einstein, Nikolai Gumilyov, Arnold Schoenberg, Bryusov, James Joyce, Gustav Mahler, Dmitri Shostakovich, Carl Gustav Jung, Sergei Prokofiev.
* Hikari Oe - Japanese composer, the son of the famous writer Kenzaburo Oe. He was born in 1962; doctors advised parents to neglect and provide treatment for the disabled child to die in peace, but they refused. Hikari suffered a variety of illnesses and almost devoid of the ability to speak, to express their feelings in music. Kenzaburo believes that his son is obliged to literary fame: his books have become the voice of his son.
* Gottfried Mind - German actor of the XVIII century.
* Derek Paravicini - blind musician (USA). Derek was born prematurely and as a result has become the treatment of learning disabilities. However, he has an absolute ear for music and can play the work, once you hear it. The boy began playing the piano at age 4 and 9 held his first concert in London.
* James Henry Pullen known as Genius Irlsvudskogo shelter. Pullen was born in London in 1835 deaf, dumb and almost mentally retarded. For 7 years he learned a single word - a distorted "mother". Even as a child began to carve boats made of wood and paint. The shelter, which encouraged trade, James was an outstanding carpenter and cabinetmaker. If he needed any tool, it easily was producing it himself. Happy Pullen worked on wood, painted and night attendants corridors. But he could portray both, for example, once the description in the newspaper painted the siege of Sevastopol in the Crimean War. Creativity autistic interested members of the British royal family.
Pullen chief masterpiece - a model of the ship "Great Eastern". He worked on the ship 7 years old, carved all the details, which included 5585 rivets, 13 boats and miniature furniture showrooms. In the center was a large studio autistic mannequin; sometimes the master sat inside, controlling it. After the death of Pullen (in 1914) became a museum shop.
* Matthew Savage - American jazz.
* Gilles Trehin - French artist and creator of the fictional city Urvillya. Born in 1972, he put diagnosed with autism at age 8. From an early age, Gilles showed talent for music, computing and drawing. As a teenager, he began to draw a map of an imaginary city Urvillya for which invented a fascinating and detailed history.
* Sarah Miller - a 42-year-old American programmer, president of Nova Systems.
* Donna Williams (born in 1963) - Australian artist and author of bestsellers. Her first book was called "Nobody from Nowhere: unusual autobiography of an autistic girl." As a child, Donna long to make the correct diagnosis: it was considered deaf. Girl on anything she could not concentrate, could not answer a direct question, she wrote later, to perceive the world the chaos of sounds and colors. Now Donna - a successful person, she is married to a programmer, he continues to write books, and is developing a website with autism.
* Stephen Wiltshire - English architect (born in 1974). In 3 years recognized as Autism. Says Steve learned only 9, and began to draw with 4 years old, four years hitting all his paintings, they were sketches of cities after the earthquakes. Stephen only once flew over London in a helicopter - and a portrait of the central part of all the details appeared on his canvases.
* Christopher Knowles - American poet (born in 1954). At the beginning of the 70 words of his poems have become the vanguard of the libretto for the opera "Einstein on the Beach».
* Vernon Smith (born in 1927) - Professor of Economics and Law, PhD, author of 200 articles, winner of awards for his achievements in economics ... This is despite the innate Asperger syndrome.
* Christopher Taylor - 40-year-old Englishman, fluent in Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German and many other languages. But on their own to leave the house, he can not.