Key facts about the cardiovascular system by cardiologist Alexei Utin

Work cardiovascular always causes us a lot of questions, because virtually all the elements of our way of life has on it its influence. Smoking, alcohol, sports, walking, caring for the health of the daily stress - everything is reflected in the publication The Village serdtse.Korrespondent spoke with the cardiologist, a blogger and an active promoter of healthy lifestyles Alexei Duck on the most interesting and important topics

. Website published a fascinating interview for the readers.

About Yoga for men and for women rocking - Alex, imagine: you come to a person who has decided to live a healthy life from Monday. Today is Monday, he bought a gym membership and decided not to come out until the summer. What do you advise him?

- In sport, of course, better to go slowly, start with small loads workouts

-. Are you talking about the training process, and that the regime? For example, people set a goal - to lose weight, pump his stomach and ass

. - I do not like it when the desired result is expressed in kilograms or within a radius of priests. It is more important to people aimed to health. The concepts of "health" and "good appearance" is very often combined, but sometimes they diverge. Mirror - a liar, in it, for example, some fat people see themselves stroynyashkoy or, conversely, do not notice problems with anorexia

-. Then choose which criteria

? - The concept of health - a state of physical, mental and social well-being. If the person is fully in line with these parameters, it is healthy

-. What is specifically expressed

? - There are certainly figures rostovesovye norms, body mass index, ie the percentage of body fat, waist volume. If the volume of a waist of more than 100 centimeters, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This is not healthy, you need to clean the stomach. What is muscle mass? There is a common misconception that women have to go to yoga, and men - to pump the muscles in the gym, although the percentage of muscle in the body of a woman of their number in the body of man should not be too much different. Developed muscles - is, first of all, for the elderly prevention of osteoporosis (loss of bone calcium - cause of hip fractures). But in our country, grandmothers seldom meet in a rocking chair. On rare grandparents, whom I see there, all looking at the city as a crazy

-. In other words, older people just have to go to the gym

? - And the women, because women lack of muscle mass leads to various problems with his back. Yoga and stretching what result? Women have little muscles, and they are already stretched, they stretch more, and women have hypermobility of joints (joints become too mobile). Maybe you are someone and hit when drinking prosecco, sit on the splits, but your strings are not necessary for health. Some of the joints (for example, in the lumbar region) increased flexibility contraindicated. It is necessary to stretch the hamstring, but do not stretch the lower back, it is better to have more muscle. And men, on the contrary, do not need a gym and aerobic exercise, group exercises and stretching. There comes a man with a huge beer belly in a gym (at the person red face, high blood pressure) and, instead of zanyatcya aerobics, starts to swing biceps.

Interestingly, of course, to observe the gender preferences for beginners: the man immediately goes to swing biceps. The existence of other muscles he had not heard, no one talked, did not read anything, but comes and knows exactly what he must have a big biceps because biceps - this is the only muscle that can be shown out of T-shirts. A large man with a biological point of view is more attractive, so males are always fluff.

A woman comes to the gym and immediately takes simulator data and breeding feet. Why? I, of course, to conjecture, but the woman as a homemaker goes only to train those muscles, which are able to keep a man in the family. Moreover, this trainer is developing muscles, causing hip, there is still work the pelvic floor muscles, which form the very orgasmic cuff

-. After the first training everything hurts. We have to go to practice the next day or take a break? And what do do with this lactic acid?

- The role of lactic acid exaggerated. In fact, muscle pain occurs due to traumatic muscle and inflammation resulting from exercising. But this Microfracture useful because it promotes muscle hypertrophy. In training mode just have to go slowly, but the first times always hurts. Even if you are in the gym all my life, and now stood on a snowboard, you get up in the morning completely overwhelmed. Well help painkillers

-. Wakeboarders say "come tomorrow sober", and it is necessary to do

? - Optional back up on the wakeboard, you can simply quickly be like after a while, the pain goes away due to the fact that improves blood circulation, lactic acid is washed away. When physical activity produced endorphins - natural opiates, they act on the same receptors as heroin. After half an hour from the beginning of trenirovochki they are already beginning to act. In this case, unlike heroin and other opiates, then there is no breaking

about food, jogging and bike -. Let's go back to the person who starts desperately to engage him. Here he read somewhere that it is very fashionable to run. I downloaded the application itself to run and run.

- Not for everyone running useful. It is necessary to assess their health condition, consult your physician. If a person with troubled joints and overweight (over 30 kg) will start to run, he very quickly encounter problems: ache knees, lower back, and soon he will no longer run. He will say: "Your damn fitness is bad, but I have my knees do not hurt from the chip and the computer!" So one has to consult someone before you start to play sports, or carefully examine the question - at least at the same

- What is the optimal training regime? There are people purposeful, that can live in the gym. Where to measure?

- It is believed that if you are in good shape, then you can go to the gym twice a week

-. The duration of training should be constant or not

? - The main thing - not how much time do you do in the gym, and how. In principle, the training can be summed up in 45 minutes. Even if you give the coach some training sheet after the first visit, it's a very generalized and primitive. The technique is formed in your mind in the course of employment. You need to realize that your life is now never be the same. If you want to change the look, then you need to be aware that running only two factors - increased physical activity combined with a change in the power of stereotypes. No diets do not work, diet generally contraindicated

-. Why

? - For example, there starvation diets when food intake below the main exchange. As a result, metabolism slows down and you lose muscle mass. Muscle mass is actively involved in fat burning, and therefore losing weight on a diet, you grow thin due to the muscle, and then dial up even more fat. In just a few cycles of hunger and disruption person comes almost to disability. Meals should be rational. It's very simple: you are what you eat. If you eat mayonnaise, then after a while the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in your body will be in mayonnaise.

Food should be the ones who will build the body you specified. Carbohydrates should be consumed in the first half of the day in the form of cereals, rice, and in the afternoon to eat protein (boiled meat, fish, dairy products along with vegetables). Vegetables - this fiber are those carbohydrates that we are not digested in the body. Fiber like Yorshik cleans our intestines without being glucose, fructose

-. In other words, life will never be the same again. We simultaneously changing diet and go to the gym.

- It does not have to be a gym, you can create a set of exercises at home. It is important to understand that the burden must be the power - it exercises power simulators to increase the volume of muscle mass: the more muscle we have, the more intense metabolism and so it is easier to burn carbohydrates and fight the fat deposits. Plus, aerobic exercise - biking, cardio, cross-country skiing, swimming, jogging, brisk walking. This should be combined. Aerobic exercise is the most generally useful, because it trains especially the cardiovascular system. In the endothelium, intima of the vessel, the nitrogen oxide is formed which lowers blood pressure, cholesterol, thins the blood, suspend aging. People who engage in regular aerobic exercise, outwardly look younger

-. You can just go to work by bike, or it is not enough

? - You can ride a bike, paddle in a kayak - the main thing that was a powerful systemic effect. It should be regular, at least 300 minutes a week, give yourself a load at which quickens the pulse and respiration (the Americans say 150-300 minutes, but all I was tuned to 300). Somewhere an hour every day, if you want to change the body, and half an hour a day if you want to maintain your health. If every day to deal with cardio, it quickly bored, but if we go over, do not use the elevator, then naberёm this hour. However, if you want to change your body, then go to the gym should be three times a week

-. There is a view that it is necessary to lose weight at first, and then go to the gym strong. >

- Of course not. Everything should be done at the same time. Just people think gym - is something like a podium, where all wear tight clothes and expensive sneakers. . This is not always the case

Pro belly and ass - All concerned two issues: the men are asking how to get rid of and protect themselves from the beer belly, while women - why it's so hard to pump up the ass
- How to get rid of the beer belly? Probably stop drinking beer. After 30 years, the rate of metabolism slows down by 1% each year, so in order to maintain the form that we had a 16-18, 40-50 must apply more effort. As a young man, however much we ate crisps or drinking beer, we had a great look: in the morning got up and went. But everything changes with age, and after 30 years it is necessary to revise your diet

-. So what to do with the belly and booty

? - The main misconception about belly and priests - that you can get rid of them, doing exercises on the stomach and on the ass. Nothing like this. How would you do the exercises on the stomach, it is practically not decrease, because the abdominal muscles do not grow too much. They are the type of muscle fibers, which are difficult to undergo hypertrophy. Cubes - it is rather a genetic thing, the majority of people they are. Each person with a ball in the abdomen probably somewhere under the ball there cubes. But cubes - is primarily a food and then exercise. In general, the fat on the abdomen and on the priest - are two different types of fat. Fat of the pope is not dangerous to health, and belly fat because of the visceral fat that surrounds internal organs - statistically proven - increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, men's beer bellies - that's what you need to fight

-. That is, to get rid of beer belly, you have the power to change

? - Belly fat - is a consequence of the power. But you must understand that there is a body type that is very difficult to alter. Women body type "pear". How much would you have paid no attention to aerobic exercise, with priests women fat will go into the last turn, because the hips, butt - a place that is supposed to protect the child

-. But we want to still have a nice ass.

- To pump up the ass, women need squats and more a series of exercises, such as lunges and hyperextension. Moreover, the weight must be quite substantial

-. If I ride a bike, I will have a beautiful ass

? - Bicycling - is aerobic exercise, it does not cause muscle growth. The growth of the priests of the bicycle can be only if you're a child engaged in some kind of sport, that is, as a child you already had this ass. From aerobic exercise priest can only return to the parameters

-. A tightened ass? How to fight cellulite?

- If a big ass, it is possible to reduce due to starvation, but if you do not do exercise, it will simply be a little saggy and not very nice

-. A breast pump can be myself strong? >

- No. Chest can be pumped only silicone. The form of the breast, rather affected by the load on the pectoral muscles. Female breast - this is not muscle, and glandular and fatty tissue. A fatty tissue of our classes will only decrease. If you are a coach says that from the exercises on the chest, you will have a strong chest, it's a lie, of course

motivation Pro -. How long does it take to lead a healthy lifestyle to notice results? Man practicing, and then sees that nothing has changed, and throws.

- The problem of motivation - basic. Firstly, it is not necessary to be weighed, because the weight is not an indicator. You can exercise, and muscle mass weighs more than fat, your appearance will change, and may even increase the weight, but it can make you quit the training program, which is effective for you. Therefore, it is necessary or not weighed at all or rarely weighed so as not to upset. If you want to see the result of training, it is necessary to take a picture at the beginning of classes. If you have the stomach, there ass, do not have anything a draw.

The first half of the month, if you previously did nothing, there is a reorganization of the body, optimization of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, new neuromuscular connections. That is, the body is under stress, trying to cope with it, moving to a new operating mode. The process of weight loss and muscle gain always occurs in spurts. Weight decreases sharply, then a long time nothing happens, then again a sharp decline. You can engage in a few months, nothing will change, and then again - and within a few days you will sharply decrease the weight, and then nothing happens for a long time again. I believe that it is necessary for beginners to learn the basic techniques of exercise, and in principle they first six months, except for them, especially not need anything. Basic exercises - it squats, pull-ups, deadlifts, bench press from the chest, and so on

-. Both men and women should do it

? - In this regard, men and women do not differ from each other. These exercises are called "polyarticular": the greater part of the joints and muscles in the exercise, the better. But they are only suitable for people without major health problems. I do believe that the simulator - is likely to exercise rehabilitation for people with orthopedic problems and the elderly. Most of the exercises should be done with free weights (dumbbells, barbells). Basic exercises cause the release of a powerful hormone that stimulates muscle growth and fat loss involved. Look, just straightening the legs in the simulator - works the quadriceps, quadriceps femoris

. When the bench platform legs is twice more muscle, and when we do sit-ups, involving almost all the muscles of the body. There have been studies where one person did exercise only the biceps, and the other was doing squats. These people composition of red and white muscle fibers was completely identical. Greater growth of the biceps reached the man who was doing sit-ups, so the harder the exercise, the better. Exercises on the simulator can only be optional, it is called "the muscle to finish." Beginners should first master the same technique polyarticular exercises. To this end, at the initial stage we need a coach: a very hard look at ourselves and assess how you are doing everything correctly. Basic exercises are effective, but at the wrong technique traumatic

Pro sports and alcohol - People say. Well, I'll change my type of food, go to a rocking chair. And that, to me now can not drink at all?

- We are all aware that if you can not, but really want, you can. The same with the sweet. Вам нужно похудеть, но если вы любите шоколад, то купите маленькую шоколадку и съешьте один раз. Это лучше, чем постоянно ограждать себя, ухудшать качество жизни, а в конечном итоге довести себя до пищевого срыва. То же самое с алкоголем: если вы где-то находитесь в компании, то можете позволить себе немножко вина.

— Как это сочетается с физическими нагрузками?

— Алкоголь блокирует выработку гормона роста. What's happening? Вы потренировались в тренажёрном зале, сделали базовые упражнения, хорошо поприседали. Решили себя за это вознаградить и выпиваете бутылочку пива, после чего ваша тренировка становится совершенно бессмысленной.

— То есть надо пиво пить перед тренировкой?

— Или вместо, или в день тренировки не пить точно. Вы можете выпить в выходные, но с тренировками это вообще не должно сочетаться.

Про секс и тренировки— Существует такой миф, что если ты занимался сексом накануне тренировки, то всё — ты уже не можешь ничего делать, у тебя полное бессилие.

— Это смотря как заниматься. Я в силу возраста себя до такого уже не довожу. Начнём с того, что если вам повезло с партнёром, то секс — это вообще неплохая аэробная нагрузка. Правда, средняя продолжительность секса, насколько я знаю, семь минут. Серьёзной нагрузкой это назвать нельзя, это разминка.

— Футболистам перед соревнованиями запрещено общаться с женщинами, как раньше воинам перед сражениями. Действительно ли существует связь между сексом и силой?

— Имеется в виду, что заряженность спортсменов на победу, на игру в таком случае уменьшается. Он вяленький. Но мы сейчас говорим не о спортсменах, а об обычных людях. Тренажёрный зал — это не замена сексу, это вообще к сексу никакого отношения не имеет.

— То есть можно?

— Для мужского здоровья вообще очень полезны регулярные половые контакты.

— Сколько надо?

— Мужчина просто должен делать это регулярно. У каждого свой норматив.

— А женщинам?

— Некоторые врачи кулуарно говорят, что женское состояние, которое называется «вегетососудистая дистония», лучше всего лечится сексом, но это не совсем моя специальность.

Про спортивное питание— Нужны ли жиросжигатели и протеины? Можно ли создать красивое тело без химии?

— Для того чтобы похудеть, нужно питаться часто и маленькими порциями. Если мы себя к этому приучим, у нас уменьшится объём желудка и чувство насыщения будет возникать быстрее, но в реальности есть пять-шесть раз в день невозможно. Тут работает спортивное питание: вы берёте белковый порошок из сывороточного изолята белка, размешиваете с водой и выпиваете, то есть поддерживаете определённую концентрацию белка и аминокислот в крови, соответственно, у вас постоянно происходит мышечный рост и интенсифицируется метаболизм.

— Это вообще не вредно?

— А как это может быть вредно? Эти витаминно-минеральные комплексы. Молочные коктейли делают пищу более полноценной по белку, по витаминам, по незаменимым жирным и омега-3 кислотам.

— А что с жиросжигателями? Они эффективны?

— Популярный жиросжигатель из незапрещённых — L-карнитин. Теоретически он переносит жировые кислоты, митохондрии, занимается жиросжиганием. Кто-то считает, что L-карнитин не помогает. Кто-то говорит: «Нет, мы стали бодрее». Есть ряд работ, которые говорят, что L-карнитин улучшает работу сердечно-сосудистой системы, и здесь я, наверное, соглашусь. Но в плане похудения, скорее всего, он не эффективен. Ряд исследований говорит, что у женщин приём L-карнитина никак не влиял на процесс жиросжигания. Есть запрещённые жиросжигатели, которые действительно эффективны.

— Почему они запрещённые?

— Потому что это чаще всего наркотические вещества стимулирующего действия. Это препараты адреналинового типа действия типа амфетамина и метамфетаминов, самые популярные в фитнесе — это сочетание кофеина, эфедрина и аспирина. Эта смесь действительно помогает подсушиться, но её используют только бодибилдеры, когда понимают, что им надо достичь какого-то невероятного процента жира, меньше 5% — и это, конечно, без фармподдержки невозможно. Большинству людей, конечно, это не надо, потому что приём этих стимуляторов чреват проблемами, в том числе психическими.

Про танцы и фитнес-браслеты— Что вы думаете про фитнес-браслеты и фитнес-трекеры? Они помогают?

— Я не очень организованный человек, поэтому мне сложно вбивать туда потребляемые калории и физические нагрузки. У меня нет фитнес-браслета, но я разговаривал с людьми, у которых он есть, и высокоорганизованные люди говорят, что вообще всё здорово, очень удобно всё считать. Но большинство людей менее организованные, поэтому их фитнес-браслеты постоянно им говорят: «Ребята, вам надо сделать сегодня 10 тысяч шагов, а вы сделали десять шагов, давайте-ка ещё 9 990». В этом смысле он совершенно чудесный — это тот пинок, который постоянно тебя мотивирует. С объективной оценкой собственной внешности и физической нагрузки у людей большие проблемы.

— Если человек танцует по пятницам, может быть, этого достаточно? Почему я не худею от танцев?

— Я к своим танцам по пятницам добавляю велосипед, который лежит в моём багажнике, тренажёрный зал, баскетбол и пинг-понг. Танцы по пятницам — тоже неплохо, но вы посчитайте, сможете ли вы 300 минут оттанцевать в пятницу. Если да, то ради бога.



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