Who had more money - John Rockefeller or Genghis Khan?
It's a simple question with a complex answer. The ranking of the richest people in the history of mankind is made in spite of the difficulty of comparing the wealth in a wide range of time periods and economic systems. For him it took hours of ordering interviews with scientists, economists and historians. Is highly controversial attempt to list the richest historical figures in order of their economic impact.
10. Genghis Khan
Years of living: 1162-1227
Country: Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan, undoubtedly one of the most successful military commanders of all time. He led the largest in human history, the Mongol Empire, which at its height stretched from China to Europe. However, scientists say that Genghis Khan never hoarded wealth. In contrast, the generosity of the Khan was the key to his influence. "One of the pillars of its success was the custom to divide the spoils with his soldiers and other commanders," - says Morris Rossabi, emeritus professor of history from Queens College. Jack Weatherford, author of "Genghis Khan and the birth of the modern world," explains that the Mongolian soldiers, unlike many other servicemen armies of those times, it was forbidden to have a trophy. After the conquest of the territory of each item of inventory subject to specific officials and only then distributed among soldiers and their families. Of course, Genghis Khan received his share of the spoils, but it hardly made him rich. "He did not build any palace for himself or his family, nor the church, nor the grave, not even a house," - says Weatherford. - "He was born in a felt yurt, and he died in a felt yurt. After the death of his wrapped in felt, like any other person, and then buried ».
9. Bill Gates
Years of life: 1955 - currently
Condition: 78, 9 billion. Dollars
The wealth of Bill Gates is very easy to estimate, since it is the most wealthy among the living today billionaires. This year, Forbes estimated the net value of the assets of the founder of Microsoft's 78, 9 billion dollars. This 8 billion. Dollars more than the state co-founder of Zara Amancio Ortega, who is now second among the world's richest people.
8. Rufus Allen (aka Ginger Allen)
Years of living: 1040-1093
Condition: 194 billion. Dollars
The nephew of William the Conqueror, Rufus joined his uncle in the conquest of England. When he died, his condition was 11 thousand pounds sterling, which was equivalent to 7% of GDP in England at the time. In 2014, this amounted to 194 billion. Dollars.
7. John D. Rockefeller
Years of life: 1839 - 1937
Condition: 341 billion. Dollars
Rockefeller began to invest in the oil industry in 1863, and by 1880, his company Standard Oil controlled 90% of US oil production. In 1918, based on the federal income tax return his fortune was estimated at 1, 5 billion. Dollars, or nearly 2% of the US economy. In 2014, it would be equivalent to 341 billion. Dollars.
6. Andrew Carnegie
Years of life: 1835 - 1919
Condition: 372 billion. Dollars
Despite the popularity of the Rockefeller, the richest American of all time is Andrew Carnegie. Scottish immigrants in 1901 sold the company US Steel for 480 million. Dollars, or approximately a little more than 2, 1% of US GDP at that time. In 2014, this amounted to 372 billion dollars.
5. Joseph Stalin
Years of life: 1878 - 1953
Status: It is fully controlled the country from 9, 6% of global GDP.
Stalin - a rare figure in modern economic history: the ruler with absolute authority, which controlled one of the largest economies in the world. While it is practically impossible to separate the richness of Stalin from the wealth of the Soviet Union, a unique combination of economic power and complete control over the Soviet Union allows some economists consider it one of the richest men of all time. And although the money did not belong directly to Stalin, he had the opportunity to use Soviet economic power as he wanted to. "He was a great power, and by his power, he could have anything he wanted," - says George A. Lieber, a professor of history at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. - "He controlled the sixth the second part of the planet land without any checks or balances." Does that Stalin's rich in the traditional sense? This Lieber is not so sure. "Was he among the richest people?" - He asks Professor and immediately responds. - "I believe that only if you want to expand the definition of wealth, but it was not his riches. He controlled the wealth of the country. " However, it is difficult not to include in the list of Stalin's most economically influential people in history. His wealth may be uncertain, but there is no doubt that the economic impact of private long-term leader of the USSR is unparalleled in recent history.
4. I the Great Akbar
Years of life: 1542 - 1605
Status: Managed empire with 25% of world GDP.
The king of the Mughal Empire, the greatest ruler of India, ruled an empire and a quarter of world production of those times. According to historians, when Akbar of India's GDP per capita was comparable to Elizabethan England, but "with the ruling class, extravagant life which surpassed European society." Allegations that the elite of India was richer than their Western counterparts backed up data economist Branko Milanovic, whose study showed that the Mughal dynasty was one of the most effective empires of all times in relation to the extraction of wealth from the subjects.
3. Emperor Shen-tsung
Years of life: 1048 - 1085
Status: Managed empire, which produced 25% of the 30% of world GDP
Chinese Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) was one of the most economically powerful empires of all time. According to Professor Ronald A. Edwards of Tamkang University, during their reign of countries provide between 25% and 30% of world production at its peak. The source of the wealth of the empire began to technological innovation and exceptional skills of tax collection, which, according to Edwards, for hundreds of years ahead of the Europeans. Also, according to the professor, the government of the Song Dynasty was highly centralized, so the emperor had tremendous control over the economy.
2. Caesar Augustus
Years of life 63 BC. e. - 14 AD. e.
Country: Roman Imeri
Condition: 4, 6 trillion. USD
Augustus not only led the empire, which accounted for 25% to 30% of world production, but also have a myriad personal wealth equivalent to one-fifth of the economy of the empire. In 2014, this state is equivalent to about 4, 6 trillion. dollars.
1. Mansa Musa
Years of life: 1280 - 1337
Status: His wealth defy description
Mansa Musa - the most famous Mansa (supreme ruler) of the medieval state of Mali. It is often called the richest man in history. According to history professor Richard Smith from Ferrum College, the kingdom Musa in West Africa was likely the largest gold producer in the world at a time when it was particularly high demand. How rich was also Musa? In fact, there is no way to establish the exact size of his wealth, as appropriate sources do not exist. Some understanding of the status of Musa can be composed of a description of its famous pilgrimage to Mecca. Then the cost of Musa was so generous that it has caused the currency crisis in Egypt. Stay mention dozens of camels, each carrying hundreds of pounds of gold. They say that the army of Musa was 200 thousand, including 40 thousand archers - the number of significant, even for today's superpowers. The stories were the image of Moses, in which he holds a golden scepter, seated on a throne of gold, with a gold cup in his hand and a gold crown on his head.