Over the past 20 years, we have seen as a profession in manufacturing transfer machines - of car assembly < / a> to customer service
. Now that computers with искусственным
intelligence collected "information profession", the place where the tasks previously performed by professionals with higher education, находятся threatened
. This question raises an entrepreneur Martin Ford in his book "Rise of the Robots: Technology and the threat of unemployment next» a >.
He spoke about the economic impact of artificial intelligence and led three examples профессий, who are vulnerable to automation
: pharmacist, a lawyer and journalist. All of them have greatly transformed, although we might not even notice.
Pharmacist A pharmacist selects the medication for the treatment of chemotherapy. Automation cope with it more effectively em>
Pharmaceuticals has changed. The hospitals are large machines that automate the entire process, and there are devices smaller, about the size of a coffee machine, so it is impossible not to notice the effect, - says Ford.
Mary Anne Koda-Kimble, Dean of the School of Pharmacy at the University of California, sees this as the pros: "Automated issuance of medicines frees pharmacists from the mechanical aspects of the work».
But Ford says it will change: "Now, many pharmacists still work because the laws and regulations so require. To become a pharmacist, you need to learn and practice a lot, but they perform routine work, the result of which should always be stable, and it is ideal for automation ».
Another factor here - patient safety. Studies have shown that технологии can reduce errors .
Bob Uotcher - Chairman of the School of Medicine at UCLA and author of "Digital Doctor". He warns about the fatal consequences that may arise from excessive dependence on computers, citing the case of the adolescent patients Pablo Garcia, who survived after he was wrongly assigned to 39 times greater than the required dose of antibiotics.
In two separate cases, the computer issued a warning about the overdose. But the message of an overdose of 1 percent and 39 look the same again, and doctors have closed it as pharmacists. Why is that? Because they receive thousands of such warnings in the day and just do not pay attention to it.
So who is to blame for the mistake - a man or a machine, or all at once?
Uotcher says: "When men's business computer systems to transmit what is happening in recent times, the problem is that the computer will sometimes make mistakes. And whether people are part of it, or they will become inactive and do not pay attention to it, because computers are so good? »
It is unlikely that judges will take the robot. Figure lawyer Charles Cooper speaks to the Supreme Court em>
We now see the в in jurisprudence robots perform basic work , such as paralegal, looking documents. It was a manual process. We had to read documents. Now it carries with artificial intelligence algorithms.
Although it is unlikely we will see how robots in the near future will result in a court case, Ford believes that now is a process of automation of high-paying jobs, which usually takes experienced lawyers.
There is a new emerging technology called "quantitative forecasting legal." It turns out that increase the efficiency of experienced lawyers, predicting outcome. They will tell you that, most likely, you win the case, or that it will be appealed and so on. D. Typically, this is possible thanks to the great experience, but in reality by algorithms can even surpass the most experienced lawyers looking at a lot of data.
Can a robot to ask tricky questions? Em>
Journalists are also not safe from the risk of automation. Using computer algorithms, companies like Narrative Science and Automated Insights now generate articles for clients including Forbes, covering topics of business, sports and politics.
In his book, Forbes writes: "The company's software creates a news story about every 30 seconds, and most of them published in the well-known sites that prefer not to admit it».
They take any data source, analyze them and select the most interesting, generating an attractive story. They become more and more advanced; it is not just the use of the formula, where you enter the numbers in the form template; it is something more, and the technology is getting better.
It is unlikely that the car will be able to replace a detailed analysis that paint professionals, but the news one day can be automated to gather comparative reviews geolocation video from such viewers like you.
How to stop being afraid and take robots
If all this seems a bit daunting, it is necessary to listen to Ray Kurzweil. He holds the position of technical director at Google , creating technologies such as a flatbed scanner. He believes that we should not be afraid of artificial intelligence .
You can talk about the professions that are disappearing due to automation but do not worry, we will come up with new ones. People ask: "What new skills?" I do not know. So far they have not come up. 65% of Americans today work in the information field, which 25 years ago did not exist, and two-thirds of the world population in 1900 to work on farms or factories. Today, these figures had fallen to only 2%. If I said a hundred years ago: "Do not worry, there will be a new work on the development of websites and applications, and different tasks in the information industry," people would not have a clue what I'm saying. We are constantly coming up with new ways to spend time, but it is impossible to predict, because the future has not yet arrived.
Kurzweil, who this year received a technical award "Grammy" for his invention of the first computer music instrument capable of recreating the grand piano musical response, believes that people have a unique advantage over other machines.
At the highest level we have such things as language, art, creativity, sense of humor, the ability to create new knowledge, music and so on. D. None of the animals can not think of music or humor. This is what makes us human.
Comparing the mind of man and machine, we will reach new heights. "I believe that we have the opportunity to be more emotional in the best sense of the word, using our intelligence, and we already have AI that frees us from the routine of thinking that we have focused on creativity. We will be even more ridiculous. We can better express the sentiment of love. We will develop the best qualities of the person ».
So let us not work, but at least we will treat it with humor.