By the end of the 20th century, only 10 percent of all patents granted belonged to women. If you make a list of the most famous inventions of the last few centuries, among the authors of these inventions will be very few women. And it's not that women do not know how to invent or they do not have a creative bone, but they face many obstacles in getting "credit" for their ideas.
Take, for example, the case of Sybilla Masters (Sybilla Masters), a woman who lived in the American colonies. Observe the work of Indian women, she came up with a new way to turn corn into cornmeal. Sybil went to England in order to obtain a patent for his idea, however, if the current law, women were forbidden to have their property, including intellectual. This property is usually owned by a woman or her father or her husband. In 1715, a patent for her invention yet been issued, the document was the name of her husband.
Such property laws did not allow many women to acquire patents for their inventions. Women are also less likely to receive and receive technical training that would help them to generate brilliant ideas and turn them into a real product. Many women have faced prejudice and ridicule when they sought help from the men in the realization of their ideas.
Mary Keys (Mary Kies) was the first American woman who has registered a patent for his name. In 1809, she developed a way of weaving straw hats that had economic benefits for New England. Given a document in his own name, Mary, thus paved the way for other women - the inventors in order to have the right to patent their ideas. Below is a list of 10 things, the authors of which are women.
10. Circular Saw
In the late 18th century there was a Protestant religious sect known as the Shakers. The main values of this sect were communal life, gender equality and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt (Tabitha Babbitt) lived in sheykerskom community in Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810 she came up with a way to ease the burden on the work of his brothers. She noticed that men sawing logs special saw with two handles that need to pull it back and forth. Although the load on the two men was the same, sawn timber only when the saw is moved forward and the reverse motion with the log, nothing happened. Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and created a prototype of a circular saw, which later came to be used in the sawmill industry. She came up with a circular saw blade, so every move made sense. However, because of the commandments of the community, Babbitt did not receive a patent for his invention.
9. Chocolate cookies
There is no doubt that many culinary masterpieces are born by accident, but it is necessary to allocate among them one of the most enduring and delicious - chocolate chip cookies.
Ruth Wakefield (Ruth Wakefield) worked as a dietitian and food lecturer before she and her husband purchased an old house-post at the outpost in the suburbs of Boston. Traditionally, these houses were a place where weary travelers paid tolls, snack and fed the horses. Ruth and her husband turned this place into a hotel with a restaurant. One day in 1930, Ruth was baking cookies for the residents of the hotel, in which the prescription was necessary to add the melted chocolate, however, the woman was in a hurry, so she took the usual chocolate Nestle, broke it into small pieces and add to the dough, assuming that during baking melted chocolate itself. Instead, the acquired chocolate a special shape, and thus was the birth of chocolate chip cookies.
Nestle company noted that sales of its chocolate grown in Massachusetts. Representatives of the company met with Wakefield talk about her cookies, which quickly gained a good reputation among tourists. At the suggestion of Ruth, they have added to your chocolate line for easier fault, and then in 1939 began to sell factory-made biscuits, while Ruth was a recipe printed on the reverse side of the package. In exchange, the woman received a lifetime providing free chocolate.
8. Liquid Paper
Bette Nesmith Graham (Bette Nesmith Graham) was not very good typist. However, the high degree college dropout who touched her, brought the girl to the secretariat of the bank of Texas, where she became the executive secretary of the board of the bank. This was the beginning of the 1950s, electric typewriter had just been put into operation. But secretaries often had to retype the whole page of text because of one little mistake, as used at the time the carbon tape could not fix bugs.
Once Graham watched as workers loaded festive pattern on the window of the bank. She noticed that when they are wrong, they are just another layer of paint on top to "close" error. Seeing this, she decided that she will be able to apply this idea in their work. Using your blender, she mixed the paint, water-based dye that was used in her typewriter. The resulting mixture she took on the job, and she was able to seamlessly with a thin watercolor brush to correct any errors in the printed document it. Soon other secretaries began to demand this product, which Graham produced in your own kitchen. Graham was fired from her job for spending a lot of time on the distribution of their goods, which she called "no error." However, being unemployed, she was able to improve its product, rename it to "liquid paper" and get a patent on it in 1958. While typewriters have been replaced by computers, many people still use white liquid - corrector.
7. Compiler and programming language COBOL
computer technology, we tend to call names such as Charles Babbage (Charles Babbage), Alan Turing (Alan Turing) and Bill Gates. However, Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (Grace Murray Hopper) deserves credit for its role in the computer industry. Admiral Hopper began serving in 1943, while she was at Harvard University, where he worked on the computer IBM Harvard Mark I, which was the first large-scale computer in the United States. She was the third person in the project, while Grace wrote a manual operation, which enjoyed its followers. In 1950, Admiral invented the compiler that transformed the British team in the machine code. This now means that programmers can write code more easily and with fewer errors.
The second compiler Hopper, Flow-Matic, used for programs UNIVAC I and II, which supports the first computers will be on sale. Admiral Hopper also oversaw the development of a common business-oriented language COBOL, which was one of the first computer programming languages. Admiral Hopper received numerous awards for her work, moreover, in her honor was named an American warship.
6. Colored flares
When Martha Coston (Martha Coston) was widowed in 1847, she was only 21 years old. In the hands of her four children, and she had not the slightest idea of how to live and what to feed them. One evening she was leafing through a notebook of her deceased husband, and found there a plan to create a flare system that could use ships to communicate with each other at night. Coston requested the relevant authorities about how to test the system in operation, but this is not possible, but Coston was irresistible.
The next 10 years she spent at the fact that the process of upgrading the system and design invented by her husband devices. She consulted with scientists and officers, but still could not figure out how to make the flashes were bright and durable, while were easy to use. One night she brought her children to the street to look at those fireworks, then that her head and came to the idea to apply some pyrotechnic technology in its flare system.
Flare system finally worked, and the US Navy bought the rights to it. Colored flares Coston widely used during the Civil War. But, unfortunately, the flare system was not the best way for women to feed their children. According to military records, Koston made for the Navy during the Civil War about 1200000 missiles, which it provided to them at cost. She had to pay $ 120,000, of which she was only 15,000, and, as she wrote in her autobiography, the Navy refused to pay her the full amount due to the fact that she was a woman.
5. Paper bag
Margaret Knight (Margaret Knight) did not invent paper bag, but those first paper bags were not so useful for carrying things. They were more like envelopes, so there was no possibility of their use for the products, that is, as we know them now, they have not once. For this we should thank the Knight. She realized that these packages must be a large area of the bottom, then the weight is distributed evenly to, and could accommodate such a package would be more stuff.
In 1870, she created the wooden machines that cut out and glued square base paper bags. While Knight worked on the creation of the Iron prototype device, then to patent his invention, she discovered that her idea of stealing a man named Charles Annan (Charles Annan), which saw its wooden invention a few months earlier. She filed a lawsuit against Annan, who argued that it is impossible that a woman could invent such a complex in the car. Knight picked up all his sketches, drawings and notes, in the end she was able to prove the opposite and get a patent on the device in 1871.
However, it was the first patent that got her so hard, but not the first patent in her life. At age 12, she developed industrial machine automatically stops the device if something went wrong, thus preventing a large number of injuries. Knight has received more than 20 patents.
We can assume that the dishwasher invented man who spent years standing over the sink and washing away the mountain of dishes, lamenting wasted wasted time. In fact, Josephine Cochrane (Josephine Cochrane), which received a patent for the first working dishwasher, do not spend so much time washing dishes. The real impetus for its invention was the fact that one day after a wonderful dinner its workers during the harvest in the kitchen broke the amazing Chinese porcelain set that was very dear to her.
Cochrane was secular particular, who loved to have fun, but after the death of her husband in 1883, she was left with a huge amount of debt. Rather than sell the numerous relics, she focused on creating machines that could wash them well without harming them. Her car, based on the work which was aimed at the dishes under strong pressure jet of water, allowing it to obtain a patent for the device in 1886. The woman claimed that invent the car was much easier than move it to the masses. At first her invention failed among individual consumers because many families did not have hot water systems, which are necessary for operation of the machine, and those who were not willing to pay for what women do for free.
Undaunted by this failure, and she began to look for meetings with the directors of major hotels and restaurants, telling them that the dishwasher can do the job for which they paid tens of workers. Over time, however, more and more families began to get its device currently in private ownership.
At the dawn of the 20th century, Mary Anderson (Mary Anderson) first visit to New York. She saw that New York, which is very different from what tourists see today. Did not exist yet endless traffic jams and an incredible amount of cars that endlessly and senselessly signals to each other in a vain attempt to drive faster. In those days cars are not yet captured the American imagination and were quite rare. However, a woman from Alabama, having gone then in New York, has invented what has become the standard for each vehicle. During his visit, Anderson rode a tram through the snow-covered city.
She drew attention to the fact that the driver had to stop every few minutes to clean the windshield from snow. While all drivers so doing, so when there was rain or snow, it was a real attack, which had to be dealt with. Returning home, Anderson has developed a special holder on the spindle, which was with the handle attached to the outside of the windshield. When the driver was necessary to clean the glass, he just pulled the handle and the unit removes dirt from the windshield. Anderson received a patent for his device in 1903, but only 10 years later, thousands of Americans began to travel by car with its invention.
Romance at a distance often questioned, however, Rachel Fuller Brown (Rachel Fuller Brown) and Elizabeth Lee Hazen (Elizabeth Lee Hazen) were able to prove that the professional relationship at a distance can lead to productive results. Both women worked in the New York State Department of Health in 1940, but Hazen was in New York, and Brown was in Albany. Despite the miles separating them, they actively collaborated in the creation of the first successful drug fighting with fungus.
In New York, Hazen felt soil samples in order to ensure that interacts whether any of the organisms with mushrooms. If she could find some activity in the soil, it had to send the specimen to my colleague, whose task was to extract from the soil organism that has caused the reaction. Once Brown would have found the active ingredient, it had to send the sample back to Hazen, so she checked it again for the presence of fungi. If the body is able to kill the fungus, it should be assessed for toxicity. Most of the samples were too toxic to humans, but finally, Brown and Hazen stumbled upon an effective body that kills fungi and safe for humans. This happened in 1950.
They called their drug nystatin. Currently medication sold under different trade names and he treats fungal infections that affect the skin, genitals and intestine.
It was supposed to be just a temporary job. Stephanie Kwolek (Stephanie Kwolek) began working at DuPont in 1946 in order to accumulate enough money to study at the Medical College. In 1964, she was still in the same place of work, exploring how to make polymers in a particularly strong synthetic fibers. Kwolek worked with polymers whose molecules are rod-shaped and are aligned.
Compared with the molecules that form the mixed system, Kwolek believed that clear lines, which are arranged in molecules, it will enjoy the material stronger. Moreover, all this is true despite the fact that these polymers are very difficult to dissolve in the liquid, which can then be tested. Later, she was finally able to create a solution with a rod-shaped molecules, but its solution obtained was significantly different from all other previously treated with Stephanie.
The next step was to have its liquid passing through a special machine that produces fabric. However, the die machine operator is not allowed to use the device Kwolek, because she received a mixture of radically different from what was used previously to him, and he feared that the car may break.
Yet Kwolek insisted and after the process Kwolek was dense as steel fiber. This material is known as Kevlar, and is currently used for the production of skis, radial tires, brake pads, cables for suspension bridges, helmets, etc. In particular, Kevlar is used to make bulletproof vests, so despite the fact that Kwolek never went to study in medical school, she, nevertheless, managed to save many lives.