47 pics + text
Days 15-19 October 1941 for Moscow were very special. Now remember them as the days of horror, gloom, panic, looting and flight. And mass heroism. This topic was very interesting to me personally, it was possible to read a lot of things, to look at the screen and even talk with witnesses.
The fighting on the outskirts of the city the most, day and night air raids, fires, people's militia, the German paratroopers in Khimki, workers' militia, shooting alarmist, mining major city objects ... and training residents conducting street fighting. Just imagine for a moment: here's to you, the citizens, pomegranate, here bottles COP, that rifle, but cartridges. Your home corner. Defend it, fellow tenants, steadfastly. Yes, make sure that the signalmen enemy lanterns at night is not lit, and then cast aside all the bombs. Signalers indulges in consumption immediately. A rumor that, say, comrades from the members of the party and government heel grease - Curb immediately.
October 15 State Defense Committee of the USSR adopted a decision to evacuate Moscow. The next day the evacuation of Moscow (in Kuibyshev, Saratov and other cities) of the General Staff, military academies, commissariats and other institutions, as well as foreign embassies. Carried out mining plants, power plants, bridges. By mid-October in Moscow evacuated almost 2 million. Inhabitants, spread panic among the population.
We will not falter in its battle for the capital,
We are native Moscow road.
Unbreakable wall of steel defense
Smash, destroy the enemy!
Faced with these realities, some Muscovites expensive, of course, scared. By Entuziastov east felled shaft. That cunning - first looted shops and Labasa and tried to escape by car. Clear - the whole gangster brothers, German agents, spies, saboteurs, and all the other sympathizers Germans made in what is happening mite. Metropolitan flinch. And ran. It was enough.
October 13 fell Kaluga, October 16 - Borovsk, October 18 - Mozhaisk and Maloyaroslavets. October 16 began a general offensive of the Wehrmacht on the Volokolamsk direction. If you look at the map - it becomes very scary. And it is not clear: yes how? This is in fact quite close to Moscow? On the doorstep!
But there were other Muscovites. They did not run. They are gone. Voluntarily at all Nedalny front. At will. For example, as part of the People's Militia, so, basically, and lying to this day at Vyazma. Including them, militia composed of Muscovites BOTTOM stopped Army Group "Center" and the price of their purely peaceful life broke the whole operation "Typhoon". And maybe the whole course of the war had broken. Personally, I think - yes, fractures that time. But this is my speculation and experience. And that's what witnesses say:
And that day that I will never forget. October 16, 1941. We, as always, spent the night at skulptorshi Sandomierz; early in the morning of the "saucer" sounded normal "From the Soviet Information. Morning Post for ... "Then the announcer's voice broke off in mid-sentence, and instead he suddenly thundered march aviators" Higher and higher and higher ... ". So at least we thought. Then, perhaps, none of us did not know that this same little changed tune sung another song, but not in Russian and in German: "Advertise raised, united ranks and step minting go attack aircraft, and their ranks, all of whom battled reactionaries and the Bolsheviks. " "Horst Wessel", the anthem of the Nazis.
Accident? A technical problem? Or the enemy succeeded in some way to connect urban broadcasting network? I do not know, I know not to this day. Nowhere then this episode did not read. But, my God, what started! The soldiers slept side by side in the hallway, jumped up and began frantically cheat on their feet winding all zagaldeli, wept. Through the radio went silent for about five minutes, and then another twenty minutes, start again as if nothing had happened: "From the Soviet Information ..."
In this and the previous three or four days, even in the middle of gunfire could be heard far away. Evenings on the horizon and then flashed lightning. In the city was a rumor that busy Krukovo, left bank, Khimki, and German tanks is about to appear on Gorky Street, where the break from the River station. An alarm is triggered very often, but this is already accustomed to.
In the morning, when my mother and I went out for groceries, Kirov Street was not found. According to her solid mass drove trucks and passenger cars with people and things, as if returning from the cottages. On some machines, sat half-dressed women weeping, and then, mixed with them, commanders and soldiers of the Red Army. At the corner of Kirov and Bobrova alley stood a group of men with rifles. One of them suddenly and unexpectedly raised zamaterilsya vintar, aiming to commanders on the truck drove by with some barrels and bales. Shot, however, was not followed, and the soldier quickly disappeared into the crowd zagaldevshih comrades.
From the courtyard, near the shop "Chaeupravlenie" in the Chinese style, some civilians hurriedly carried large paper bags, loaded them on a wheelbarrow. At the Kuznetsk fell like black snow. "Harness the documents." - Mom said. The same "snow" and walked on the street Marchlewski. Awful, I recalled with a shudder and shame scene: on the street near our entrance mom publicly kneels before some administrator of the Union of Artists, begging me to take. "I have no right - shyly tells her administrator.- send people to strictly verified lists."
Outside the windows all thumps horizon in the smoke, and low over the telephone exchange fly two silver and sharp-nosed Soviet Yak-3. How now can see them. Miracles childhood memory! Radiovopli suddenly interrupted. Sound callsigns: "Broad is my native land." Then - with a metallic voice: "Attention, attention. Thirty minutes later, the radio will be transferred to the speech of Chairman of the City Council workers in Moscow Comrade Pronin. " Then again, call sign, and again many times about this performance.
Finally it begins Pronin. Calm, measured voice, he said that in recent days in the capital of irresponsible elements raised panic. There have been cases of flight managers of large enterprises without evacuation statements, as well as a number of cases of theft of socialist property ... In Moscow entered a state of siege and curfew ... Those leaving his post without proper instructions about evacuation will be held to strict account ... resumes catering and consumer services, cultural and entertainment facilities, as well as all kinds of public transport ... Moscow was, is and will be the Soviet! All those who stood around us, shouted and applauded.
I well remember the July Stalin's speech: "Brothers and sisters ..." The Chief was very nervous, spoke with a heavy accent, often drank water, and then it was perfectly audible, as small knock his teeth, striking the edge of the glass. It was very scary. Even I, an eight-year, inspired no hope, and a sense of hopelessness and despair. And what a huge contrast to the speech father of the nation was calm, concise and courageous speech now forgotten Vasily Pronin! After it the very next day the city has changed, everything worked, even a taxi. On the streets were military and police patrols. Stampede stopped. Evacuation of the population and enterprises took the organized nature.
War through the eyes of an eight-year Muscovite
My brother and I were sitting on the couch and playing cards. After dinner, my father went on duty. Less than five minutes after his departure, both near our house there was a powerful bomb blast. Well, that window in our room was closed quilt - it took over the broken shards of glass windows. The light went out. Mother, who was washing dishes in the kitchen, shouting: "Leo, take Kohl in his arms and quickly get down to the shelter."
Mom, as she could comfort me. She did not hide his anxiety not know what happened to his father and asked Leo to go and see if there was among the dead father? He returned half an hour later and told me that he did not find his father, but killed seen. From shrapnel and blast wave on the first floor of a nearby house killed a woman who was just going to come from to feed her husband's work, to stay alive. The horror ... the morning ran father and told him how it all happened: "When I left home and came to the gate and wall of sufficient thickness, I heard the distinctive sound of a flying bomb. Managed to shout down! And he went and leaned against the wall fence. I launched from the explosion on the ground. I quickly jumped up and ran to the nearest phone to report a bomb had fallen and injured. "
For three days my mother and I, without waiting for the air raid down for the night in the shelter. Conditions for the night was not there, so the brother who had already worked, did not want to go down to the basement and stayed at home. Now my mother was worried not only his father but also the eldest son. After a few rough nights, she said: "Let them kill everyone, not just the one Leo!" So we stopped going to the shelter. Then from Aunt Kathy, his brother's wife's father, we learned that they have to Sretenke bombing does not happen, and we have to go for the night to visit him.
October 16, 1941 in Moscow started to panic, at Paveletsky station became shrill buzz locomotive ... On the night of that day many, casting rooms, objects and documents, rushed to the east. Remaining in the house people poured into the yard, all stood in confusion, not knowing what to do. I thought that now enter into the courtyard and the Germans shot all of us.
And we really would have been shot if our troops left Moscow. But Moscow did not pass as it is not passed in late November - early December !!! Because Moscow has not left the Red Army Supreme Commander Joseph Stalin and death were our gallant veterans !!! Low bow to them and a deep appreciation !!! A low bow to the Communists and non-party who knew what they are fighting !!! A low bow to the heroes of Panfilov and other valiant warriors !!! May their memory !!!
N. Gavrilov, Professor
On the "panic October 16, 1941" began writing recently. Documentary evidence of panic in the workbook were old Muscovites, when all workers recordings were made for dismissal from October 16, 1941 General Sinilov said that 17 or 18 October, he was summoned by Stalin and offered to take the post of military commander of the city of Moscow (he was then commandant of the Kremlin). The general said that he was ready to take this position if Moscow declared a state of siege. Stalin looked at him and said, "Go into the next room and write the order." Order dated October 20, known panic in Moscow stopped dismissed Muscovites returned to work.
Regulation of the State Defense Committee
Sim declared that the defense of the capital on the lines spaced at 100-120 kilometers west of Moscow, entrusted with the commander of the Western Front General of the Army t. Zhukov, and the Moscow garrison commander, Lieutenant-General so. Artemiev charged with the defense of Moscow on its outskirts.
In order logistics defense of Moscow and strengthening the rear troops defending Moscow, as well as to suppress subversion spies, saboteurs and other agents of German fascism State Defense Committee decided:
1. Enter on October 20, 1941 in Moscow and the surrounding areas of the state of siege.
2. To prohibit any traffic as individuals, as well as transports from 12 midnight to 5 am, except for transports and persons with special passes from the commandant of Moscow, and in the case of air-raid ads movement of people and transport must take place in accordance rules adopted by the Moscow air defense and published in the press.
3. The protection of the strictest order in the city and suburban areas entrusted to the commandant of Moscow Major General ie. Sinilova, which in order to give the commandant of the troops of the NKVD internal security, police and volunteer workers' detachments.
4. troublemakers immediately bring to justice the transfer of military tribunal, and provocateurs, spies and other agents of the enemy, calling for the violation of the order, shot on the spot.
State Defense Committee calls on all working people of the capital to keep order and peace and to the Red Army defending Moscow, every assistance.
Chairman of the State Defense Committee
The Kremlin, Moscow, 19 X 1941
If you are interested in the history of Moscow, and in particular, the history of Moscow's military - would highly recommend to read the books yet unfamiliar to me the writer GV St. Andrew's. I came upon two published "Young Guard": Everyday life in Moscow during the Stalin era. 1920-1930-and Everyday life in Moscow during the Stalin era. 1930-1940 years. Four paper copies of these books, I gave my friends. And one, in the form of elektroaudioknigi - left.
Here is a small excerpt from the book:
Day 16 October 1941 it became a black day in Moscow. On the eve of the State Defense Committee (GKO) adopted a resolution "On the evacuation of the capital of the USSR in Moscow." According to the decision of Moscow had to leave the government, the management of the General Staff, the military academy, commissariats, embassies, factories and so on. Large plants, power plants, bridges and underground mine should have, to give workers and employees in excess of at Pudu flour or grain and salary for the month ahead .
As always, the first run, those who had the best opportunity for this. Officials and the Dodgers in any way to obtain machines, cars and trucks, stuffed them everything they could to take away, and took out from Moscow with their families. Many cars stood on Arbat Square in front of the former Revolutionary Military Council, on the corner of Znamenka. Military leaders took out their families. People saw it, and was indignant.
In addition to all the trouble these days has stopped working underground, trams stopped, closed bakeries. Part of Muscovites pulled to the center, to the Kremlin: they wanted to defend Moscow and hoped for the government to Stalin. But many fear hit. What sort of defense, if the plant closed, the workers dismissed, if not more digging trenches, do not pull the barbed wire, if silent heads of state and Moscow? And then the city started to panic.
On paths leading to the east and south, drew crowds with nodes and suitcases. The best thing was to go from Moscow to Ryazan highway, it is not shelled. But go and on other roads - if only out of the west. Muscovite Reshetin in his diary described the works: "Sixteenth October road enthusiasts filled with fleeing people. Noise, shouting, noise. People moved to the east, towards the city of Gorky ... I Am Twenty ... By area fly sheets and scraps of paper, garbage, smells of burning. Some people out there, there is bound to stop highway vehicles. Dragged riding, beat them, dropping things rasshvyrivayut them on the ground. Heard cries: Kill the Jews! »
A Blog journalist Verzhbitsky appeared in those days this entry: "... in line fights, old women strangled, crushed in stores banditstvuet young people and the police for two to four loiter on the sidewalks and smoke," No instructions "... disgraced road enthusiasts, by which in this day flew eastward cars yesterday "enthusiasts" (in words) loaded with nickel-plated beds, leather suitcases, carpets, jewelry boxes, wallets and pot-bellied fat meat hosts all this stuff ... »
Left, as always, with the sides of trucks narkomovskih ordinary Soviet citizens embraced anger. Nerves have passed. Alexey Koptev, locksmith train depot, October 22, 1941, at the store drunk climbed for bread queue. Its citizens, of course, not allowed. This angered him, and he tried to beat citizens. Those summoned policeman Fedorov. The policeman took the offender to the police. Along the way, Alexei Ivanovich cried: "Citizens, we are robbed, do not give bread!" In the duty of Alexey rolling on the floor, mother and shouted: "Jews Russia sold, there is nothing to defend Moscow, no guns, no ammunition, no shells. Jews were robbed! "In the end, he was tied up.
But that said "Evening Moscow" about the massacre of refugees in the article "In the face of a military tribunal." On the morning of October 18 on the outskirts of the city drove trucks to evacuate. Janitor Abdrahmanov now attacked one such truck. Hooligans threw stones at him. When the car stopped, they pulled out of her passengers, beat them and carried off things. Police with the help of citizens detained fifteen bandits. The instigators of the attack tribunal sentenced to death.