Drivers often do not realize that splashes into a tank of their car. More precisely, they have to believe the labels at the pump, "A-92", "A-95" and so forth. And suddenly it's gasoline with a lower octane rating? "Triplets" of the engine, the power loss, the valve clatter, clogged filters, carbon deposits on the spark is often blamed on poor quality fuel. However, empirical evidence does not usually provide a car mechanics and ask during litigation does not refer to them. Policing the gas station in a dilution of the fuel and, therefore, customers may be the only way - in a special laboratory on expensive equipment. There we delivered eight canisters with gasoline Belarus. Experts surprised us once, literally smell to determine which canister is 80th, 95th and 98th. However, all the fun has just begun.
63 pictures and text under the cut
a source at the end of
- Liquid transparent, not cloudy, no extra impurities. Immediately I can say that the sample resembles №3 80th gasoline. He has a lot of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and it has a characteristic smell of "original" gasoline without additives. But in the canister №1, it seems to 98th. Do you not feel the air? Thin, not sharp flavor, but has a straight nose, - Sergey Bezverkhy vocabulary, senior laboratory assistant in the motor fuel testing laboratory, is very similar to the terminology of professional tasters.
We all had amazing how you can identify the smell of gasoline octane. It seems, from any fuel carries, or do not say about the same. Or are we simply sniffed? In any case, getting a specialist before this analysis was a perfect match. Outset: testing laboratory employees have only seen the numbers on exactly the same cans. On the origin of the fuel and octane they did not know anything. So, for the purity of the experiment we can vouch.
Like last time, the sampling were done at the pump five major networks of filling stations in Belarus - «Belorusneft-Orgneftekhim", "Lukoil", "A-100", "Gazpromneft" and United Company. "How is it - five gas stations and eight cans?" - The reader will notice immediately. The answer: it was decided to fill the five samples of AI-92 petrol stations from all networks - after all it is the most "popular" petrol in the country. And also take a sample of "Normal-80", AI-95 and AI-98.
This time the study was conducted in a test TD "Neftmagistral" having a network of filling stations in Russia. Why there? Firstly, it is one of the best-equipped laboratories in the Russian Federation (if there is such Belarus at all?). Second, the company has no interest in Belarus, so we had no doubt that its experts will conduct an independent review. Third, there is only agreed to show the process of research. First we come to the old address, which previously were tested for "frost" diesel - in the Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Gubkin. However, the device for determining the octane number of gasoline, as it turned out, in a closed room for unauthorized photographing and there is prohibited. For us, it was the principal show trial in detail and that the process is completely transparent.
Laboratory TD "Neftmagistral" where we promised to show up and everything, literally crammed with the most modern equipment to determine the quality of fuel. The cabinets - dozens of containers with different standards, without which the work would be impossible.
We immediately noticed the "old friend" - automatic analyzer Tanaka: using exactly the same last time studied the diesel fuel. By the way, there were still a number of multiple units of the same Japanese company.
The device for measuring the density of petroleum products
The spectrometer determines the content of sulfur in gasoline
This unit measures the vapor pressure of gasoline
That (pictured below), the Austrian instrument for determining chemical composition. It is, incidentally, about 100 thousand. Euro. But he needed only a few drops of fuel and a couple of seconds to give a detailed analysis.
- Our company is considered profitable to invest in its own laboratory for the analysis of the fuel to control its quality. In Moscow, these laboratories can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Without exaggeration, we can say that the best equipment is collected, - says head of the testing laboratory Alexander Kevhiev. - Our customers - Shell, British Petroleum and other oil companies.
But one of the biggest machines in the lab, with the Soviet title FMP-85M (manufactured Savelovsky machine factory). On it we will calculate the octane number. The staff immediately asked to ignore the brutal type of installation. They say the best instrument yet nobody came up with. Americans use similar equipment, but the Chinese did in fact a copy of the FMP-85M, only slightly changed appearance.
But before the test installation ... factory. Prior to her work as a real need to warm up the engine, and then you can begin to research. Laboratory filled with exhaust gases and noise. With the habit, even a headache.
- The device simulates the operation of the engine, although it uses only one cylinder, - says Sergey Bezverkhy. - The principle, without going into details, can be described as setting the standard compares to enroll in the study of gasoline. The Japanese have a similar system, but it refers to the electronic data stored in the memory, not to a specific sample from the flask. It's like measuring the speed of up to a tenth by a fifteen-car speedometer.
Sample №1. Gasoline made in?
First, we filled the canister is the most expensive gasoline sold at our filling stations, - AI-98. "Refuel" at the United Company. They say it's bringing in fuel from abroad. Confirmation that we have. But motorists quality deficit for Belarus gasoline praise. And what is it really? He will meet the criteria?
Even pouring fuel into the tank from the canister, Sergei Bezverkhy noticed the smell:
- Feeling esters which are commonly used as anti-knock additive, i.e. to increase the octane number.
Before you pour the sample into a bulky FMP-85M, laboratory staff check the chemical composition of the Austrian machine. Recall, we are not even called octane gasoline, and they had to imagine what they are doing. The analysis, as we have noted, takes just a few seconds.
- Now I have no doubt that this is a high-octane gasoline - senior laboratory flick through a printout.
The fuel is then poured into the FMP-85M. Direct test begins! If you listen, you can hear a series of resounding blows microexplosions, this is a detonation. The device measures the amount of detonations in a certain period of time.
The display lights finally figure 56. While it is still a convention, "raw" results. Sergey has yet to make an exact calculation using several formulas for pressure, temperature, and so on. D.
- The octane number - 98, 8. Almost 99 minutes! - Announces the result of senior laboratory. - Additives can work wonders! And more specifically - methyl tertiary butyl ether, according to the analysis of chemical composition. I must say that at the moment only with the help of anti-knock additives, and you can get high-octane gasoline - with the number of 95 or higher. Believe me, in Europe too, gasoline with additives lowering detonation. Once we brought fuel from Austria. It is used as an additive ethanol. But our people probably would not understand.
Sample №2. He wants to be the 95th
Gasoline AI-95, we specifically "refueled" at the gas station "Lukoil". Err on the fuel drivers, they say, low-quality, the machine does not want to go, and the difference between it and the A-92 reportedly did not.
However, the laboratory staff about the sample №2 had a different opinion.
- This one wants to be the 95th - looking results of the analysis of chemical composition Sergei Bezverkhy.
The fact that this "desire" informed, confirmed a couple of minutes. 95 7!
- Yes, like gasoline to us has somehow did, just from Belarus. Very decent, by the way, high-octane fuel. As a rule, 95 minutes - this A-92 with methyl tertiary butyl ether content of five per cent. This is the anti-knock additives. Important not to be exceeded the oxygen content in the presence of oxides that form, as it is undesirable for the machine. But it's all right. No complaints with this sample can not be, - says the laboratory staff.
Sample №3. Normal "Normal»
Find "Normal-80" proved to be difficult. This petrol was only sold in the third refueling "Belorusneft-Orgneftekhim", which we stopped. The decline in its sales, however, is not new. In the beginning, it was announced that the implementation will gradually cease. The reason - "to release larger volumes of high octane gasoline." Sort of substitution.
- Even on the chemical composition shows that the gasoline is close to the 80 th. It does not oxygenate that add resistance to detonation - looking printout with the Austrian machine Sergei Bezverkhy. - I would even say that it will be higher octane number.
The forecast was justified: 83 4. By the way, with 80-m gasoline is due a certain confusion. Many owners of American cars have decided to fill it "Normal-80", referred to in this manual - they say, there is indicated «Fuel Selection 87 Octane». But this is not true, because the Americans use a different classification for octane numbers.
During our tests, we analyzed gasoline RON because such classification adopted in Belarus for a long time, as evidenced by the letter "I" in the designation of grades of gasoline - AI-92, AI-95, AI-98 ("Normal-80" as measured by the research method). But there is still the motor method, which involves a completely different mode of test fuel.
- Research method of sparing it as a job engine warming up, idling. A motor is much more intense, at higher speeds, as if the gas pedal to the floor squeezed, - draw an analogy in the laboratory. - Motorists difference, I think, is clear.
But in the United States have decided that the truth is somewhere in between. The Americans brought "his" octane. It is defined as the arithmetic mean between the octane number of motor method and research. So, perhaps, more honest, but more complicated for the Belarusians. So Fuel Selection 87 Octane - is not less than 92 octane!
Sample №4. 92% 8% isooctane and n-heptane
Finally we made it to the most popular in Belarus gasoline AI-92. The fourth canister was filled 92 minutes with one of the gas stations of "Belorusneft-Orgneftehima" (but not the one where we took a sample №3). What is the verdict of the professionals?
- Not 80 minutes exactly - even during sampling dismissed this option Sergei Bezverkhy. After chemical analysis, he spoke confidently: - Similar to the 92 th, a good composition.
Fill in FMP-85M. A few minutes the concentration of its processes. Done! 92, 1. Once again the norm.
- A-92 - a mixture of iso-octane and 92% 8% n-heptane, - explains Alexander Kerhe. - Isooctane generally does not knock its octane rating of 100. But a priori, n-heptane, on the contrary, it gives rise to, so he octane - 0. The main thing is that the balance was not disturbed. Voiced blows that we hear during the installation, it detonation wave, a lot of time bouncing off the cylinder. Do I need to explain, the less such microexplosions better. Detonation - a resistance to ignition of fuel under compression, the chaotic fire. It is because it reduces engine power consumption and increased engine wear.
Sample №5. 92 and a half
Was taken at a gas station "A-100".
Gasoline as gasoline. Nothing suspicious we did not notice. The color just like everyone else. Well, the word of experts.