Under the cut contains recommendations for everything you need to take when providing assistance to the victims, and most importantly, something that in any case can not be taken. As mentioned composition of the kits, the imposition of the correct tires and wire harnesses, and useful things, which normally do not speak treasury lectures, but who always come in handy in real life situations. Used schematic images, taken from different thematic resources.
After reading the article, do not attempt to play Dr. House - there are things that can be successfully done only by a qualified technician.
We define the concepts and objectives
First aid includes measures to eliminate the danger to the health and life of the victim and reduce the impact of injuries. First aid is carried out before the arrival of professionals. For first aid, along with the treatment of wounds and immobilization (immobilization) are:
emergency call emergency medical service; take measures to stop the bleeding and restore the health of the heart and lungs (resuscitation); evacuation of the injured from the danger zone to be transported to the space available for emergency assistance is needed for pomoschi.Pervaya:
The elimination of threats to the life of the victim (recovery of cardiac activity and respiration, haemorrhage) prevention of complications (infections, frostbite, fractures offset, etc.). Providing transportation postradavshegoImmobilizatsiya
Immobilization - creating immobility of the affected area of the body, the main measure of preventing a painful shock. Without immobilization of the victim can not be transported. Poor immobilization for fractures can lead to secondary displacement of fragments or secondary damage. There are transport and permanent immobilization. We are interested in transport.
Transport immobilization is carried out at first aid to the injured during transport. With gunshot wounds transport immobilization is always necessary, as peace prevents the development of infection. For temporary immobilisation used tires, and in the absence of tire - available means. When transport limb immobilization is necessary to fix two joints (above and below the injury site), and at the turn of the shoulder and hip - the three major joints of the limbs.
Immobilization is performed immobilization two neighboring joints above and below the fracture.
In open fractures can not be put bus to the places where they played out bone fragments.
Immobilization using improvised means: a, b - fracture of the spine; c, d - immobilization of the hip; d - the forearm; e - the collarbone; Well - shin.
If you need to transport the victim, it is better to do it on a stretcher, collected from improvised. If not, in some cases the victim may be carrying.
Carrying the victim alone: and - on his hands; b - on the back; to - shoulder.
Carrying the victim alone: and - a way of "each other"; b - "lock" of the three arms; in - "lock" of the four hands.
A little more on transportation
Transported the wounded lying on the back, on the back with knees bent, on his back with his head lowered and raised the lower extremities, on his stomach, on his side. In the supine position is transported victims with head injuries, injuries of the skull and the brain, spine and spinal cord, bone fractures of the pelvis and lower extremities. In the same position to be transported all patients with trauma associated with the development of shock, significant blood loss or unconsciousness, even short-term, patients with acute surgical diseases (appendicitis, incarcerated hernia, perforated ulcer, etc.), and injuries of the abdominal cavity.
Victims who are unconscious, transported in the prone position, with inserted under the forehead and chest rolls. Such a provision is necessary to prevent asphyxia. A significant proportion of patients can be transported in a sitting or half-sitting.
During transportation in the cold season it is necessary to take measures to prevent the cooling of the victim, as cooling for almost all types of injuries, accidents and sudden illness worsens the condition and contributes to the development of complications. Of particular note in this regard require a wounded superimposed tourniquet, victims who are unconscious and in a state of shock, with frostbite.
During transportation it is necessary to observe the patient, to monitor breathing, pulse, do everything to vomiting has not occurred aspiration of vomit into the airway.
It is important to provide first aid to their behavior, actions, conversations spare maximize psyche of the patient, which reinforces the confidence in the successful outcome of what is happening.
Help for fractures, imposing tires
with an open fracture and the presence of excessive bleeding from the wound - to stop the bleeding (tourniquet or pressure bandage); imposition of aseptic primary wound dressings; anesthesia (giving analgesics, if any); produce transport immobilization of a limb; if everything is complicated by shock, you must perform a simple anti-shock measures (warming, ingestion of hot tea); Overlay tires
Bus - laying of a hard material, reinforcing bandage. Splint bandage consists of tires, pads and bandages. As the pad can be used wool, clothing, etc.
The tire can be made from scrap materials. For this fit a thick cardboard, boards, palki.Pri splinting should be remembered that the bus must cover two neighboring broken sustava.Shina must not come into contact with the skin. This is especially important in places where the bones are located near the surface of the tire overlay is convenient tela.Naibolee sides limbs, less convenient for the front or rear sides konechnosti.Pod bus must be carefully pribintovyvayut soft prokladka.Neobhodimo tire body part to be immobilized to it could not be displaced.
Bus bandage on upper limb
If the damage is in the area of the shoulder joint (the clavicle, scapula, humerus head, neck shoulder surgery) will be enough to bandage the right hand bent at the elbow to the body via kosynki.Pri damage in the elbow and forearm splint is applied to the shoulder and upper arm on the outside side or superimposed two wooden tires, one on the inside, between the shoulder and the torso, and the other on the forearm below. Both tires should be well fastened above the elbow. Then, the arm is suspended by two kosynok.Pri fractures of the forearm bones - a bus from the fingertips to the middle of the shoulder. The arm bent at the elbow at a right angle, palm facing to the stomach, fingers half-bent, in the palm of embedded roller. Pribintovyvayut bus all over, and then hung on kosynku.Pri fractures brush - bus must go from the fingertips to mid-forearm. The fingers should be bent, they invested roll of gauze or a bandage. Palm surface of the brush a few turned to her stomach. After splinting and fixing the brush suspended on kosynku.Pri fractured humerus - the bus must capture the entire limb girdle from the toes to the healthy side, capturing three joints. It will take place from the fingertips of posteroexternal surface of the forearm to the back and shoulder blades up on the healthy side. In the absence of a sufficient length ladder bus, you can use two short stair rails. After their imposition and fixing arm is suspended on a headscarf or binte.Pri clavicle fractures - fixing exercise soft po¬vyazkami. Immobilization can be carried out by hanging on the side of the limb damage on the edges
When isolated fracture of one or two edges of the imposition of the immobilizing bandage is desirable. At the turn of the three or more ribs on one or both halves of the rib cage is possible to apply a simple chest bandage with a "shoulder strap." Chest bandaged tightly (shrinks).
Bus bandages on lower limb
When fractures of the foot - a bus from the tips of the toes to the middle leg, bending it in the form of the letter "G". The foot is at right frail to the shin. The tire is superimposed on the rear surface of the leg and the plantar surface of the tibial fractures stopy.Pri - impose three ladder tire: one - at the rear of the leg and the plantar surface of the foot, previously bent so that the foot is at an angle of 90 ° to the axis of the tibia, the upper end should go up to mid-thigh; second and third superimposed with the outer and inner sides of the limbs from the base of the foot until the middle bedra.Pri hip fracture - requires careful immobilization. To do this, use three tires: one tire length from the armpit to the inner edge of the foot, curved at the foot of the letter "G", the outer tire; the second bus is applied to the back surface of the limb from the shoulder or buttocks to the toes of the foot and the same curved; third rail is located on the inner surface of the limb from the crotch to the edge stopy.Voobsche such recommendations in the field is very difficult to follow, if you are not a professional carpenter. What if splinting is not possible, do not usually write.
Bus bandage if damaged cervical spine and head
Immobilization is achieved by two buses. The first bus "puts" on its head: it covers the crown of the head, ears, and both shoulders. The second bus is located on the back between the shoulder blades, then on the head moves to the top of the head and ends on the forehead, which overlaps with the first bus. Both tires are fastened together.
In the absence of hand tires to immobilize the zone, you can use two heavy sandbags, which are placed on the sides of the head of the victim lying on his back on a hard bed.
Tires damaged when the lumbar
First aid for injuries of the lumbar spine and pelvis will be placing the patient on a wooden board with divorced and slightly bent at the knees - so-called position "frog". Limbs is necessary to fix the imposition of longer rails along the entire body, tied with a shield that the patient does not shift during transport.
Bleeding - an exit of blood from the blood vessel outward into the surrounding tissue and the body cavity.
According to distinguish the source of the bleeding: arterial, venous, arterial-venous, and capillary parenohimatoznoe.
Capillary bleeding stops the wound overlay routine, not even tight bandages and lifting up the limb. This reduces blood flow to the wound, the formation of a clot and stop bleeding, and is final.
Venous bleeding stops imposition of a pressure bandage. On the wound impose several layers of gauze or a piece of cotton wool and bandage tightly. There is compression of blood vessels, blood clots and stop bleeding. With strong venous bleeding can be peredavit vein below the wound.
Arterial bleeding occurs when damage to the artery. Blood flows jet fountain. The amount of blood ejected depends on the caliber of the vessel and the size of the vessel wound. Blood bleeding can be stopped in several ways, depending on the diameter of the bleeding vessel.
pressing the artery above the wound; pressing an artery in the wound; the imposition of a pressure bandage; tourniquet; maximum flexion konechnosti.Prizhatie damaged vessel made 2-3 fingers to the bone in a typical place. Bleeding from an artery should be stopped immediately. The fastest is the pressing of the artery in the wound and pressing the artery above the wound. This method is difficult, but it gives you the opportunity to cook a tourniquet to stop the bleeding.
Artirio-venous bleeding - bleeding mixed. Blood quickly fills the wound. Pressing of the vessel above the wound does not stop bleeding, but the blood becomes dark. Pressing vessel below the wound does not stop bleeding, the blood becomes scarlet. In fact, it is necessary to stop the arterial and venous bleeding in parallel.
Parenchymal hemorrhage - bleeding in the hidden cavities, or limbs. I'm not a doctor, and I do not climb in the classification at this point may be malfunctioning. The essence is that the blood flows into the cavity (e.g., peritoneal) or tissue of the extremities. If the affected limb begins to swell - then the artery is damaged, it must be higher than the expected pinch the break artery. Such bleeding is the most dangerous, because they can not stop outside the operating room. The course of first aid he was not even considered, because it is usually lethal.
Acute blood loss
Symptoms of acute blood loss depend on the speed of the expiry and the amount of blood lost. The bleeding occurs more rapidly, the more difficult the clinic of acute blood loss. Rapid blood loss; 1/3 of blood volume life-threatening loss of half of the total volume of blood is lethal. When the mass of 65 kg blood volume is approximately 5 liters. Thus, the loss of 1, 5-1, 7 liters of blood -opasna and 2, 5 l - lethal.
Symptoms of acute blood loss: pale skin and visible mucous membranes, pointed facial features. Feels victim - darkening of the eyes, ringing in the ears, dizziness, nausea and vomiting - this is due to stimulation of the cerebral cortex and the vomiting center due to hypoxia. Pulse frequent, weak. The decrease of arterial and central venous pressure. With the development of the crisis is growing violation of the higher nervous activity: first, there are concerns, then fear, panic expression, disorientation, confusion and loss of consciousness.
First aid for external bleeding is to as quickly as possible by any means to stop bleeding. Tourniquet
Wiring is not applied to the skin. In order not to compress the skin to protect it from the padded bandage or cloth. Wiring can be applied as clothing, pre-straightened her folds. Do not apply a tourniquet in the middle third of the shoulder and in the upper third of the leg, so as not to injure the radial and peroneal nerves. Before applying the tourniquet should rise to create the outflow of venous blood. Tourniquet applied above the wound as close as possible to it, without excessive tightening - to stop bleeding from wounds and disappearance of the pulse on peripheral arteries. Wiring should be noticeable on the affected. About the time of its imposition make notes on paper and enclose it under the round harness. In the summer, the length of stay tourniquet on a limb should not exceed 2 hours, and in winter - 1 hour. When using the harness at the time of children reduced by half. Every hour in the winter - half an hour, burning need to relax for 10-15 min., And then tighten if bleeding occurs again.
Technique tourniquet: the wiring is brought under the limb above the wound. One hand is superimposing the wiring from the outside, the other - from the inner surface of the limb. The tow is stretched and stretched portion is applied to the area of the passage of the main vessel. The first round is a crosshair to prevent its weakening. All the while pulling the harness, wrapped it around the limb several times so that the moves harness lay there, not on top of each other, and the contact area with leather harness was widely as possible.
I found a good figure is not very good quality, clearly showing where clamping or impose:
The wiring should be handled carefully. Write a tourniquet time better on the forehead or cheeks of the victim, to make it more noticeable. This is no joke, and the realities of life. If the bleeding is not severe as in American cinema, often weaken the harness better (even every 10-50 minutes for 3-5 minutes), allowing blood to nourish the limb. By the way, the wiring is applied on the neck by hand.
Rescue breathing and chest compressions
First of all, we should make sure the airway and eliminate mechanical obstacles to breathing. For carrying out artificial respiration by the method of "mouth to mouth" is necessary:
the right of the victim; lay the victim on his back, unbutton constraining clothes; put a cushion under the shoulder blades for better throwing back of the head; clean the oral cavity and pharynx from foreign bodies and mucus; to improve the airway and prevent sticking of the language to throw back his head, push the lower jaw forward and open his mouth; cover your mouth with a handkerchief or gauze; squeeze the sides of the nose with your fingers;