A selection of informative stories about the random patterns of about inspiring feats, subjectivity and the meaning of life.
Man of the house who's house
The action took place in the early 70s. Professor of psychology and law at Stanford University, David Rosenhan (David Rosenhan) conducted an interesting experiment. He took eight perfectly normal in all respects a man: three psychologists, a psychiatrist, a pediatrician, an artist, a housewife and a graduate student. All of them turned to the psychiatric clinic, as people who are "concerned about their mental health." All talked about himself and his state of truth, except for one detail - they supposedly heard voices saying "empty", "dull", "knock". They all doctors considered mentally ill. All of them were sent to the hospital.
Immediately after the hospital doctors, they said that they feel fine and no longer hear the voices. They were treated for 7 to 52 days and behaved like normal people.
As a result of treatment of seven was diagnosed with "schizophrenia", one - "manic-depressive psychosis." After being discharged from the clinic their condition was described by doctors as "improved", "in remission," but no doctor found that they recovered. None of the doctors did not think that they are perfectly healthy.
Following the publication of the results of the experiment, all psychiatric clinics put them into question, arguing that such blunders are not possible. Professor Rosenhan proposed to repeat the experiment, saying it would send to him for some imaginary number of patients. Clinics carefully diagnosed following 193 patients and 41 of them are diagnosed with "psevdobolnoy».
In fact, the professor is not sent to clinics in a single person.
Following a statement by John Lennon that "The Beatles" more popular than Jesus, radio KLUE (Texas) was organized by the burning disc of the group. August 13, 1966 covered the event live. The next day, Sunday, the tower was struck by lightning KLUE. Almost all of the equipment was burned, news director was in the hospital.
The history of the Tatar
I wanted to shoot "Last year's snow," and I was told that it is necessary to shoot something about pioneers, collecting scrap metal. I resisted and screamed. The scandal lasted four days. And fifth, I came in and said, "Okay. I want to make a cartoon about Lenin. " Then they tightened: "What's that for a cartoon?" "Well, - I say - Lenin was a very cheerful person. I am making a funny movie about Lenin - all obhohochutsya. " They realized that they put on the table for a movie party cards. They asked: "Can not about Lenin?" - "I am a well-known director, I want about Lenin." Two weeks went and demanded - want about Lenin! Even then I figured out that the film will be the story Zoshchenko about Lenin. And got what he wanted - do what you want - but not about Lenin! And I made "Last year's snow».
In defense of the mess
Everyone knows that penicillin was discovered by accident. But I wonder how many factors had to match up to this. The key role played in the opening sloppiness Fleming - after studies he did not sterilized Petri dish, and scatter them anywhere. Only once in two weeks, he shoveled debris and cups antiseptic soaps.
One day in early September 1928, after returning from vacation, he went to the lab and saw the usual rout. Before leaving, he planted a couple of dozen crops of staph boils, abscesses, and inflamed tissues of the nose, throat and skin. Cups and lying in the bath, half drenched Lysol. Before you take up the wash, he noticed strange. In the middle of one of the mold cups increased stain, and the edges were not bacteria. It looked as if the mold had destroyed them. This accidental discovery will Fleming Nobel Prize - later became the mold penicillin.
A series of coincidences that led to the fact that the mold has grown, and it was noticed by Fleming, is extremely unlikely. First of all, the window was open and mold spores penetrated from the street; have a cup of staph, oddly enough, has not passed the incubation period; from July 27 to August 6, the street was ideal for the growth of mold temperature - 16 to 20 degrees Celsius; Then came a rather long period of warm weather, enough to Staphylococcus multiplied; Fleming returned from vacation just took this cup. Finally, this is the cup from slipping into an antiseptic, which would have destroyed the bacteria and mold.
When Samuel Johnson issued the first real English Dictionary, came to him a delegation of respectable old ladies who wanted to praise him for what he was not included in the dictionary no indecent words. "How nice, - said Johnson - that you specifically looking in the dictionary all indecent words».
Several years ago the city council of the Italian city of Monza forbade owners to keep their goldfish in an aquarium with curved walls. Because it is cruel to fish - they have a distorted view of reality.
The best example of rapid change in the media positions were French newspaper headlines after the flight of Napoleon from Elba Island (1815)
First day: "Corsican monster broke free!».
Second day: "The usurper fled to the island of Elba».
A few days later: "Bonaparte finds support in the province».
Next step: "Napoleon had supported his army closer to the capital».
Apotheosis: "Paris welcomes His Majesty the Emperor!».
Indian farmer Dashrath Manjhi Dashrath Manjhi belonged to the lowest caste and lived in a poor village, where there was not even a hospital. Direct path to civilization - the neighboring town - blocked rocky mountain. There was only a road to bypass, a long and uncomfortable. One wife Dashratha, climbing the mountain, fell and was seriously injured. Help the time could not provide, and soon she died.
The farmer took a shovel, a hammer and chisel to break through the road and went into the mountain. Every day he went to peck, to dig out the stones (some sources say that he was working in the evenings, after work in the field). The neighbors called him a madman. Local government, mired in laziness and lack of money, did not lift a finger to help. It took him twenty-two years - from 1960 to 1982 minutes, almost razed to the mountain and to do it in the road. Now the way to the town now takes an hour on foot. All India learned about him as "a man to remove the mountain." When Dashrath died, the state government gave him a solemn funeral.
Sarah Winchester, the widow of the son of the founder of the famous weapons firm Winchester, owned 50% stake in the company. It brought her $ 1,000 a day (about $ 22,000 today). She considered herself damned. Afraid that her haunted spirits of all the people killed by Winchester rifles and decided to knock them off the scent.
Sarah bought a house in California of eight rooms and decided it will continue until the construction of the house, she will not die. And the house began to grow. It was built 24 hours a day, seven days a week for 38 years, pristraivaya to it more and more areas. The house was about 150 rooms, two ballrooms (which no one ever used), 40 bedrooms, 13 bathrooms. The house was built without a master plan, so it has doors that open into the walls, staircases that lead nowhere, blind windows.
In 1922, Sara died in her sleep from a heart attack.
From 1923 to 1940, Nikolai Vavilov and his staff made 180 expeditions and gathered the world's largest collection of cultivated plants - more than 250 thousand samples. It was the world's first gene bank.
During the war in the besieged Leningrad, 16 rooms All-Union Institute of Plant Industry, where he kept the collection were actually full of food. It had everything - from rice to potatoes. Of the 14 employees of the institute 9 died of starvation. The collection has remained intact.
Vavilov himself planted in 1940. They were interrogated 400 times. He died in prison in 1943.
Lance Edward Armstrong - American road racing cyclist. Armstrong: "One day the doctors found I had cancer of the brain, lung and testicular cancer - all in one go. I offered to quit the sport, but I sent everyone on dick and cured, won the Tour de France five times in a row ».
Just three years after surgery and chemotherapy, in 1999, Armstrong won his first Tour de France. Italian cyclist Filippo Simeoni has publicly accused him of doping. In response, Armstrong promised that he will not give Simeoni win a single race in which he will play. And he kept his promise.
In the hardest race of 2004, nearly all the track was painted with slogans offensive to Armstrong. French spat in his face. And he still won.
The New York schools conducted a simple experiment. 400 fifth graders were given a few simple tests. Once they have coped with the task, one half was praised for the fact that they are so smart and the other for what they did a good job. Then all were given two new tasks - one more difficult, more easier. The choice.
Interestingly, 90% of students who were praised for their diligence have chosen a more sophisticated tests, and most "smart" - the simpler. Smart has proved that they are smart and would not possible failure to put this fact into question.
By the way, psychologists believe that when a person pulls up to the last performance of the work he has to do a long time ago - it is also the fear of failure. Man insured just in case - but if I had more time, I would have all shown a masterpiece. And so ... I just did not have time.
In 1955, Emma Gatewood (Emma Rowena Gatewood) read in the National Geographic article about the difficult route through the Appalachian foot (3489 km). The article said that only five people were able to pass him for one season, and that, of course, no woman can not do it. Emma at this time was 68 years old, she was already the mother of eleven children, grandmother and great-grandmother of twenty-three thirty more. The woman thought it was a good idea and went to light. She went to the gym shoes and took with him only the army blanket, coat, plastic shower curtains, first aid kit, a change of clothing and a small supply of food. All. She had no map, a compass, a guide, a tent, a sleeping bag and a backpack. Her diet consisted of dried beef, cheese and nuts. The rest of the food she found in the woods.
She lost 15 kilos of her shoe size increased from 8C to 8D, but it went the entire route for 142 days. After 5 years, it will pass this route once. And then again. In the 75 years.