There is a popular phrase that the history of science is a history of misconceptions. New discoveries, on the one hand, are always based on previous knowledge. But on the other hand, they very often negate previous knowledge. The twentieth century was in this respect an absolute record. It turned out that a familiar and generally understood, as it seemed by the end of the NINETEENTH century, the world around us was in fact not the way we see and feel.
Let's start with the fact that the material world arose from nothing, is composed of nothing and, in fact, represents nothing, as its total energy (and hence mass) is equal to zero. Building material of this world is emptiness. But how perfectly organized and tailored this emptiness!
We are, all that surrounds us, everything that we can touch and what you see are just bumps in the void. Moreover, these uneven waves, particles, fields, in all their possible States simultaneously (for example, the electrons of the atoms of your body are in their places, and in all other parts of the Universe, and they are not available anywhere else, all at the same time, but most of them, on the theory of probability will be "on the spot" and that's why You, dear reader, still quite visible). And some certainty, this emptiness becomes (a chair is a chair, a table – table, friends – friends, Luna the moon, the universe – the Universe) only when interacting with our consciousness. When we have this table, friends, the moon, the Universe and everything around us including our own body, seeing. This picture of the world found born early in the last century quantum mechanics. And in fact, by the turn of the century the rich colors in this painting added quantum chromodynamics and quantum cosmology. And not tried yet the founding fathers of quantum mechanics, and then the next generation of scientists with such a paradoxical picture of the fight, nothing happens. She only gets brighter and clearer. To date, these, to put it mildly, "strange" of the theory clearly confirmed experimentally. In short, apparently, reality is happening at the moment of observation, objective reality does not exist!
We all understand and physically feel that they live in Time and Space. But what is Time and Space? They emerged with the world and with it will disappear. It also bumps the void. Rather, time and space is an abstraction that occurs only in our minds. This way of perceiving this world. They are relative and depend on the position of the same specific observer. Ultimately, they are ephemeral. Space-time, according to modern scientific ideas, not fundamentally, this is only a temporary state of vacuum.
This world is a result of the Big Bang. What "exploded"? "Exploded" as it is called physics, material point, which did not occupy any space, that is, in fact, space was not any. In our human view, there was nothing. Time and space originated with the matter in the Big Bang. But at this point were focused endless (think about it – infinite!) density and energy. But that's not the point. And that if our universe born from a point that to her, despite its current, we think, incredibly giant sizes, should be treated as a quantum object, like some kind of quark or electron... And this, in turn, means that the world could not appear and manifest itself as a reality without the presence of the observer. How about this spot a very famous scientist, Professor at Stanford University's Andrei Linde:
Evolution occurs only relative to the observer. There is no evolution of the entire Universe. Is evolution an observable part of the Universe.
Andrei Linde. Our former compatriot, now a Professor at Stanford University (USA), one of the authors of the inflationary Universe model. Received numerous scientific awards.
This is not a private point of view of one of the major scholars. With a view of the world is forced to accept modern physics and cosmology in particular, even if this picture is someone very much not like. And it is here you can not only about the present but about the past: the reality of the past arises only when we are present for some signs and artifacts is the past trying to reconstruct. This applies to the reconstruction of the evolution of life on our home planet.
In the beginning our world was going to be extremely streamlined. And it is almost unbelievable. The likelihood of such a world that we observe, according to estimates of the famous mathematician and cosmologist Roger Penrose expressed inconceivably small number – 1/1010123. This number cannot be written in the decimal numeral system: even if the toe this number to record every quark and electron, the substance in the visible part of our Universe is not enough to make this number fit.
Roger Penrose. The famous English mathematician, physicist, cosmologist. For outstanding merits in development of science of the Queen of great Britain awarded the knight's title (this is in addition to numerous scientific awards).
The emergence in this world of life in the form known to us, as well as the emergence of the human mind, events almost unbelievable: their probability is expressed, according to the calculations of Roger Penrose, also an extremely small number – about 1/101060. And yet the world exists, we exist in it.
Rationally explain all this is possible only in two cases: either the world was created by Higher Intelligence, or the Nature to create countless (possibly infinite) number of possible universes, one of which accidentally turned out to be suitable for the appearance in it of such beings as we are.
However, in the latter case, still can not avoid the question: how did nature "know" that it needs to create countless worlds (the famous British physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking articulates this question: "why the universe goes to the trouble of living?"), as well as having information about these worlds and, in particular, about our world? Where did the laws of nature? And which came first: the laws by which matter exists, or the matter itself? Why the world can be described mathematically? Where did the mathematics, and whether it existed before the first creatures able to count?
The answers to these questions, most likely, should be sought where the answer to the question, what is information and where it comes from. Our world of information. Information lies in its very basis. One of the pillars, you might say, a legend of modern physics John Archibald Wheeler was convinced that "everything is information". Or another with the wording: "Being given a bit" ("It From Bit").
John Archibald Wheeler (1911 – 2008). Worked with Niels Bohr and albert Einstein. One of the "sponsors" of the atomic bomb, the author of the term "black hole", scientific supervisor of the whole galaxy of the most influential contemporary theoretical physicists.
Every bit of matter and a quantum of energy carry information about the laws and history of our Universe. The laws of nature is an integral part of the fundamental information about our world. As noted by one of the famous cosmologists Alexander Vilenkin, quantum birth of a Universe "governed by the same fundamental laws that describe the subsequent evolution of the Universe. Therefore, laws should be in place before the universe itself arises. Does this mean that laws aren't just describe reality, but by themselves have independent existence? In the absence of space, time and matter on which tables they can be recorded? The laws are expressed in the form of mathematical equations. If the medium of mathematics is the mind, does it mean that the mind must precede the Universe?" (Alex Vilenkin. World of many worlds: Physicists in search of parallel universes ("Many Worlds In One. The Search for Other Universes").
Alex Vilenkin, Professor and Director of the Institute of cosmology at tufts University (Boston, Massachusetts). Its origin you guessed it absolutely right – he is a graduate of Kharkov University, 1971.
And regardless, the "no tables" contain information about the fundamental laws, it is obvious that the Big Bang was not only, or rather, not so much portfelem space, time, matter and energy. First and foremost it was a Big information explosion, when information about our world materialized. More precisely, materialized that part of the information relevant to the matter. I myself, like many others, I am sure that the material is only a small layer of reality. The spiritual world is incomparably larger and richer, and his laws are less regulated than what we call the laws of nature. The only trouble is, what about the spiritual laws we know much less.
And how it amazingly, current scientific view of the universe as never came close to Christian. If any of the wisest scholars in the beginning of the XX century was able to predict the real scientific discoveries of the next century concerning the structure of our world, and those ideological conclusions drawn from these discoveries you can make, his colleagues in the best case would declare such a person a guide a particularly sophisticated "priestly propaganda".
So, what are these intersections? Let's try to briefly list them.
1. The world had a beginning, he created from nothing.
"I beg you, my child, look at the sky and the earth, and seeing all that they are, know that everything God created from nothing and that it happened the human race", says the mother to her son, urging him to bravely accept death from the persecutors of the Jews in one of the books of the old Testament (2Мак. 7:28)
2. Time also has a beginning, and came with the material world.
"By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that was visible from the invisible," writes the Apostle Paul (Heb. 11: 3). Speaking more modern language, century, time, the created word of God, and at the same time along with the time from the invisible (spiritual) have any visible or material world.
In many Orthodox prayers, will find this appeal to God: "giver of Light and Creator of the ages, my God...". To God, Christians are treated like the Creator of light and time. Has a time and end with the world.
In the Apocalypse (also in Greek "Revelation") of St. John the Evangelist says about the end times: "And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven and swore by him that lives forever and ever, Who created heaven and everything in it, the earth and everything on it, and the sea and everything in it, that time will not be..." (Rev. 10: 5,6). Eternity from a Christian point of view, not an infinite time, and lack of time.
The time attribute of the material world. God is outside of time, He is in eternity. With the end of the material world, there is a "Kingdom of heaven", the man also enters eternity, time is running out. Therefore this world is called in the Christian texts of the "temporal world". The scientific community as a whole is forced to agree: our world is doomed, sooner or later it will cease to exist. Disappear and the space-time of our world, in our view, about it.
Ø"For in Thy sight a thousand years are but as yesterday when it is past...", says the prayer of Moses is included in the Psalter (PS. 89: 5). God's Millennium, not important – past and future – is equivalent to one already passed, "yesterday" day. God, as we said, outside of time.
"...With the Lord one day is as a thousand years and a thousand years as one day," says Moses, the Apostle Peter (2 Peter. 3: 8).
4. In the beginning was the Word.
"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth". This is the first line of the old Testament book of Genesis.
"In the beginning was the word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. It was in the beginning with God. Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that was made." These are the first lines of the gospel of John. That is, God the Father created the world through His Word, which was God. Is God The Son. The divine origin of Christ. Otherwise the name of Christ – Word of God. What is a "word" in human understanding? It is formulated (formalized as you like) thought. And in modern parlance – is information.
Just above we noted that the Big Bang was, could not be, not so much the event that gave rise to matter, space and time. First and foremost it was a Big information explosion. Information about this world, its laws were originally laid in this world. Not otherwise explain the existence of laws of nature. Not to explain the orderliness of this world, its progressive from the point of view of modern evolutionists, the development. In the moment of the Big Bang information about our world materialized. And this idea, like all previous ones, the priority belongs to religious knowledge: in the beginning was the Word...
5. Universes, within which no observer, have no physical meaning (in the human sense of the word).
Repeat: modern physics is unable to describe either the birth of our Universe or its evolution without using the notions of the observer. According to quantum mechanics, without an observer interacting with the world cannot emerge from a superposition of all its probable States in which it must simultaneously coexist. The theory of relativity requires to indicate the relative position of the observer, relative to which we can speak about time and space. There is no absolute time and space. Without determining the location of the observer in space-time, we are not able to determine neither the one nor the other.
Christianity says: God created this world for human viewer of the world." "And God said, let us make man in Our image according to Our likeness, and let them have dominion the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over beasts and over cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" (Gen. 1: 26). No man, according to Christianity, this world is meaningless.
Moreover, in the Bible there is a clear indication that our world is based on the laws of quantum mechanics, I hope to tell apart.
6. The anthropic cosmological principle (the assertion that this world is those physical parameters that seem specifically created in order to enable them to exist in this world) in this context loses the aura of a scientific "curiosity" and becomes quite natural, and not just in the strong and in the most harsh with the wording. Information about life in General and about the man's appearance was supposed to be, could not be laid down in a Large explosion.
7. Probability based on quantum mechanical principles of structure of our world allows us to explain how it can be combined with the freedom of action of God and human free will. About this, I hope we can talk in detail later.
8. In the Christian view, we live in a cursed world. The curse of this world – entropy (this is the same thing where everything in the material world wears out, grows old and sooner or later collapses, and we are with you for her to die. And, most likely, entropy defines the direction of time flow). The law of non-decreasing (in fact, constant increase of) entropy, i.e. constant growth of chaos, dooming our world to death. But the same law says that somewhere in the beginning of the Universe, the world was wonderfully ordered, its entropy was zero or close to zero.
Practically the same claims and the Bible. "And God saw everything He had made, and behold, it was very good" (Gen. 1: 31). That is the original world was perfect. It was not the place of death and decay (entropy). But after the fall of Adam and eve, God curses the material world, saying to Adam: "...cursed is the ground for you, in sorrow shalt thou eat of it...till you return to the land from which you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return" (Gen. 3: 17-19). And since, in the words of the Apostle Paul, "the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now" in the hope that together with the person "shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God[i.e. the redeemed, saved, liberated from the corruption of the people – D. O.]". (ROM. 8: 21-22). In other words, the person passing your way, needs to return to its original, "Negreanu", status, and along with him from decay and death will be relieved the whole world.
9. Wildlife differs from the inanimate by the fact that life itself is the possibility and necessity of self-organization and creativity. The same thing – in her usual concise form – the Bible.
If you carefully read the first Chapter of Genesis will notice that God is inanimate nature creates by his Word. But all living things (except humans, whose creation is fundamentally different from other things) is committed to creating land and water. "And God said, let the earth put forth grass, and herb yielding seed... and the fruit tree... And it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb... and the tree..." (Gen. 1: 11-12). "And God said, let the waters of reptiles, the living soul; and let birds fly above the earth... And God created great whales, and every living creature that moves, which the waters..." (Gen. 1: 20-21). "And God said, let the earth bring forth the living... beast, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth..." (Gen. 1: 24). In other words, God gives the land and water creativity, invites matter for co-creation, what is now, in scientific parlance is called "self-organization".
10. Life is a mechanism of opposition to entropy. But alive can't overcome death, which occurs regardless of the individual ability of organisms to deal with it. Death as entropy (the curse of the God of the earth), according to the Bible, entered the world at the time of the fall of man (In the words of the Apostle Paul, "...man sin entered into the world, and death by sin..." (ROM. 5: 12)).
The mechanisms of "natural" death in different groups of living beings sometimes are very different. Many of them (including humans, most cells of which are capable of dividing 52 times, and it's all over, though often, as we well know, he dies much earlier than its limit, estimated at about 120 years) the death of the body lies at the genetic level. While there are a number of potentially immortal species. But really an immortal being by anyone anywhere has been found. Death, alas, still reigns in this world.
Of course, these points are not limited to the intersection of scientific and religious ideas about the world order. As and not limited to the above paradoxes of modern scientific theories. The author of these lines I would like to tell more about itself, from his point of view, interesting from the fact that in the context of our subject came to date scientific thought. And at the same time about some of the basic components of the Christian doctrine of the world, which, unfortunately, do not always know even those who consider themselves Christians. No one would like to impose their worldview, but just to give another reason for thinking about life and its meaning.