Long ago it was. So long ago that no one really remembers when. You have to calculate. But these extremely divergent. Those who comes from the information gleaned in the Bible, insist that since the day of Creation of the world took several millennia.
Jews, for example (and they are still the founders – I would even say "pervo recipients" – those books which Christians refer to the old Testament), the beginning of the Creation I believe 7 October 3761 BC In the Russian Orthodox tradition, coming from the Byzantine, this date is slightly different – 1 September 5508 BC Modern science based on astronomical observations sets another time of the birth of the Universe (called this point, if someone forgot, Big Bang) is 13.7±0.2 billion years ago. Here it is, with these billions, not the exact date, besides, recently there is evidence that it is 600 million years old can be younger.
Sometimes flare up a very serious debate on this topic. Although, actually, the question of the age of our Universe is not as fundamental as it might seem by the disputants. People forget that time is relative and ephemeral, and from any point of view: religious or scientific. The important thing is that after a few centuries of clashes of views about when and how arose this world, scientific thought again approached Christian. The world had a beginning and, apparently, is born (created) out of nothing.
And maybe, really, the way it was born?
Curiously, each of us witnessed this event. In the literal sense of the word – "witness." At least the body of each of us carries information about a truly fateful moment: all elementary particles, constituents of every atom of our bodies, were born exactly then, in the first moments of the Universe. Why no one can remember when and how it was actually? But it is, by the way...
How to do this is to create a whole world from nothing. Works very simply, based on this elementary arithmetic equality: 0=(+1)+(-1). Newborn world of today's cosmology was supposed to contain equal parts matter and antimatter. When interacting, they annihilate (mutually destroyed) with the release of large amounts of energy. But the substance somehow turned out to be a little bit more than antimatter, on the physical language is called "symmetry breaking". So, according to some estimates, 1000000000 1000000001 was recorded the creation of the quark, hence all that stuff, which comprises the galaxies, we ourselves, and all the "real" that surrounds us. So if someone will figure out how to "split" the toe, it can be a leisure exercise in creating new worlds.
Diagram of evolution of the Universe since the Big Bang, with the graduation of time (upper scale) and the temperature of the "environment" Kelvin (lower scale) and by the fact that in some periods of time were formed or born.This "generic feature", "birth from nothing", identified features of our world: its initial development, the present and the future. The law of conservation of energy has not been canceled: the total energy of the Universe remains the same – zero. Here is how this situation outstanding British physicist and Cambridge University Professor Stephen Hawking:
The total energy of the Universe is exactly equal to zero. Matter in the Universe is formed from positive energy. But all matter attracts itself under the action of gravity... the Energy of the gravitational field in some sense negative. We can say that in the case of the Universe... this negative energy exactly offsets the positive energy associated with matter. Therefore, the total energy of the Universe is zero. Since twice zero is also zero, the amount of positive energy of matter in the Universe is expected to double simultaneously double negative gravitational energy; law of conservation of energy is not violated. This does not happen in the normal expansion of the Universe. But it happens when blowing ("inflation"). <...> Guth (Alan Harvey Guth American physicist and cosmologist, father of the inflationary model, which later in the now accepted view formulated by the Russian-American physicist Andrei Linde – approx. the author) on this occasion said: "they Say that there is no tablecloth-Samobranka. And isn't that eternal ground of the universe itself?" (Stephen Hawking, "a brief history of time")
Stephen Hawking, the famous English physicist and cosmologist, popularizer of science, founder and Director of the Centre for theoretical cosmology at Cambridge University. From a young age he began to develop the so-called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which led to a complete paralysis. In addition, he removed the trachea, and he no longer can speak. Friends created for him a speech synthesizer, which is mounted on his wheelchair. One time moving he had one of the fingers, now the mobility remained only in one of the muscles of the cheek, opposite to which is fixed a sensor. The muscle sensor Hawking controls a computer and communicates well with the outside world. But with all this remains a surprisingly persistent and cheerful person. Recently it was going to fly into space.
So, the universe can endlessly expand, but the level of its total energy will not change. However, equal it will remain zero. Andrei Linde, Professor at Stanford University, on this occasion, remarked: "It [the universe] began with zero, it is zero and will end."
Here I have to recall the famous Einstein formula: E=mc2 which means that energy is equivalent to mass, ie the substance (and Vice versa – mass energy). So in total, the number of all energy-matter in the Universe is exactly equal to zero. What does it mean? Like this: to feel together with the rest of the world is zero? So there is a world around us? Are there ourselves, if we are inextricably part of this world, but together with him is zero?Not a simple question. For example, doctor of physico-mathematical Sciences Sergey Rubin describes the emergence of our Universe from the perspective of a hypothetical outside observer:
Moreover, the environment does not resist the expansion region of space covered by more rapidly proliferating inflaton field (scalar field, which, according to the inflationary model of the universe instantly expanded, subsequently giving rise to matter and other forms of energy in our world) because it seems not to exist for the emerging World. General relativity asserts that physical picture that the observer sees depends on where it is and how it moves. So, the above picture just for the "observer" inside this area. Moreover, this observer will never know what happens outside the region of space where it is located. Another observer, looking at this area from the outside, no extension at all will not find. In the best case, he sees only a small spark, which by his watch will disappear almost instantly. Even the most sophisticated imagination refuses to accept this picture. And still it, apparently, correct. At least, so say modern scholars, drawing confidence in the public laws of Nature, the correctness of which is proven.(magazine "Around the world" №2, 2004) is the spark plug, which may be, notice the "external" observer (repeat: completely hypothetical observer, as no real observer outside of our Universe, cosmology, at least today, does not imply), and which almost instantly disappears and is, to this observer, our Universe, past all the way from the beginning to the end. Such is the sad story: sad to realize that your life, what your life, life is seemingly infinite, eternal, immutable Universe in front of someone's eyes, even hypothetical, would be just barely visible, instant spark. Even more offensive, if that spark so no one will notice.
It is noteworthy that this kind of "sparks" in the infinite set appear and disappear everywhere around us. Physicists call them "quantum fluctuations". Due to quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle (which we will discuss later) in our space-time continuously arise and then disappear a pair of so-called virtual particles. They seem to really appear, but then neytralizuya. And they can have infinite energies. Roughly speaking, formed some infinite positive and negative charges and then neutralized with each other. Appeared and immediately disappeared. The law of conservation of energy is not violated. The equality: 0=(+1)+(-1). And it was there that in fact, or was not, no one will ever know. But as the fluctuations of our world is literally "teeming", their presence causes, though subtle, but very real physical effects (e.g. the Casimir effect).
And in the rapidly-developed imagination, you can imagine that in each of such fluctuations are born and then "neutralized" a new world. And endless of them are born and die an infinite number of worlds identical to our brand. The picture bad: not really want to feel the virtual person in the virtual particles in the virtual world. The mind resists, and in my opinion, rightly so, because it is consciousness, the only reality, to prove the existence of which no individual is required. If you, dear reader, in this second of reading this text – you are there!
Moreover, it is quite possible that you, or rather your consciousness is responsible for the existence of the entire Universe. Today's cosmology is quantum cosmology. The first moments of its existence the universe was so small that even did not occupy any place in space or, as physicists say, was a "material point". And such facilities involved, as you know, quantum mechanics. So somewhere in the 1980s of the last century, cosmology has evolved in quantum cosmology, it is necessary to consider how the patterns of the macrocosm and microcosm patterns and are these patterns so different worlds, very often did not want to be combined. One of the most important equations of quantum cosmology is the so-called equation Wheeler — DeWitt. So, according to this equation, if the total energy of the Universe is zero (as just above, we said that this is so), the wave function of such a Universe does not depend on time. Put simply, time in this Universe will not.
But it is the time we have. And as you know, it's absolutely relentless: currently flowing and, at first glance, no matter what equations, absolutely does not want to depend on us. And we have something from him as dependent. The true author of the equation Bryce DeWitt, the founder of quantum cosmology, they say, is not so fond of his equation, which is called his name of his supervisor John Wheeler. Hence the double name of the equation.
But as the equation any name, but a way out of this contradiction it was necessary to find. And DeWitt suggested that we when we talk about the Universe, not talking about the complete Universe, and the rest of the Universe. We differentiate ourselves, separate ourselves from the rest of the observable world. But if we separate ourselves, our consciousness, then of the total energy of the Universe must subtract himself with his mc2, and then the total energy of the Universe will no longer be zero, and the time in our world will appear in the usual form. (There are a lot of snide questions: how to measure our mc2, in sneakers or without, before dinner, or after, etc. In fact, we are talking about that our weight, which we recognize as "me." It would be more accurate to talk about energy, and perhaps energy and mass of our consciousness, if only someone knew how to measure them...). But the public did not raise any non-scientific associations, Bryce DeWitt explained that, in the end, such an observer separating himself from the world, may be the machine. However, did not specify who will monitor the machine and manage it.
This explanation of our relationship to the time within our world, it should not be classified as "plugging holes": that explained as best I could, and went on... the Problem of the "observer" is one of the fundamental problems of modern physics, primarily quantum mechanics, but not only. Yes, and with time itself in recent years, physicists often have different problems. So many of the most authoritative scientists refer to the proposed Devitto interpretation quite seriously. For example, Andrei Linde, bringing reflections DeWitt to its logical conclusion, says:Evolution occurs only relative to the observer. There is no evolution of the entire Universe. Is evolution an observable part of the Universe.
There is no question that such observer must be a God or other heavenly powers. The observer must be located inside the system. Consequently, this observer is likely to be a man: people in General, i.e. mankind and each of us individually. And I want to warn with the most that neither is a scientific and modern point of view, it is not possible that you, dear reader, observer for our mortal world depends on the world itself, its properties and even, perhaps, existence. Remember about this sometimes, because it imposes a very definite responsibility, in my opinion. published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©