Striking thing. When some bring us to a standstill "absurdities" of quantum mechanics is connected with the dogmas of Christianity, for example, over the centuries has become a familiar, but still far from trivial, the simultaneous oneness and the triunity of God (dogma of the Holy Trinity), suddenly begins to unfold the puzzle. Particles of these other realities are not just coincide and complement each other. But about all under the order.
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And I want to start with extensive quotations from the works of another great teacher of the Church of the IV century Gregory the theologian. Actually, for the purposes of this article of the whole passage is important to us just three words, you'll see them: I have them in bold. But I would really like you to read this a few dozen lines of carefully and slowly. In addition, Christianity is very beautiful. In these few lines of St. Gregory contains almost all the teaching of the Church about the person. About its purpose. If you hurry, you can safely skip these lines — they are more than a thousand years, they can wait a little longer:
Since the first creatures [angels, they are the same "smart power", "smart creatures" – D. O.] were pleasing to God, conceive another world, material and visible; and this is the slender part of the sky, the earth and what is between them, amazing beautiful qualities of every thing, and even more admirable for the harmony and Concord of the whole, and one another, and all to all is in perfect ratio, serving to the fullness of one world. And this God showed that He is able to create not only akin, but completely alien to Itself nature. Akin the God of nature smart and one mind is attained, absolutely as alien to the creature to be the senses, and of these latter further separated from the Divine essence of the creature is inanimate and immovable.
...But there was never a blending of mind and feeling, to combine the opposite — that experience the highest Wisdom, the generosity in the education of their natures, and not all the riches of his Goodness was still present. Of his own will and show it, the Word artist is building a living being, which is given in the unity of both, that is, invisible and visible nature, creates, say, a man; and from the already created substances taking the body and my investing life (which is the word of God known under the name of the soul and of the image of God), works like a second world, in the small the great; the leaves on the ground another angel, from different natures composed of the fan, the viewer's visible creatures, witness of secrets creature mesosystems king over what on earth subordinate heavenly [high — D. O.] of the Kingdom, earthly and heavenly, temporal and immortal, visible and mesosystems, an angel that occupies the middle between greatness and meanness, the same is the spirit and the flesh — spirit because of the grace, the flesh for the sake of extolling the spirit, to dwell and to glorify the Benefactor, in the flesh, to suffer, and suffering, to remember and to learn, how generous he is gifted with greatness; a living creature is doing, here predostavlyaem and resettled in a different world and (that is the end of secrets) through the pursuit of God reaching deification. (Word 45. On Holy Easter)
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Gregory The Theologian (329 – 389). (Fragment of a fresco)
These are the three words that I said at the beginning: man is "the spectator of the visible creature." Does it seem odd that the statement of the theologian, fourth century: God is the audience, not the angels of heaven, man? Maybe St. Gregory meant only that the material world is created to please the human eye? The context is not like a list of "goals" set by God before man, to which Gregory the Theologian leads these three words is clearly of a higher order than just enjoying the scenery. Or he meant that people should look for the "visible creature"? But then there are words that people made king "over what on earth": there is would be tautology. Or between the idea of "spectator" of St. Gregory and the concept of "the observer" in contemporary physical theories there is some deeper connection?
It seems that such a link exists.
The so-called problem of the observer in physics today is very sharp. As we have seen in previous articles, the birth and existence of the Universe without its interaction with the observer cosmologists can not describe. Time and space in relativity theory also manifest themselves only in interaction with the observer. At least, that's how it looks according to the current level of knowledge. But it seems that's not the level, not the volume of knowledge about the world, but rather in the properties of this world. Apparently, the universe around us is in a sufficiently strong degree depends on us. I want to emphasize that the measurement or observation of this world is not only the experiments carried out in physics, scientists of other specialties. We are all observers.
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Our presence in this world is observation and measurement. Life is dimension. Continuous process measurement. Or the process of continuous measurement. As you like. And almost all the arguments, descriptions of real and thought experiments we associate with some laboratory space or research solely because it is precisely and graphically demonstrate processes that occur in and around us.
So again, back to the lab and try to finally decide who is to be considered an observer to the measurements in quantum mechanics. Naturally, we assume that any quantum measurement (in our conventional laboratory) conducts a experimenter, who, at least, understands why and what it does, then there has to a conscious goal. It is hard to imagine that the cat described in the third article in the thought experiment of Schrodinger's perfect for the role of the observer, although someone may argue with this statement. But I suggest cat accident still left alone though, because it is, in my opinion, are not able to describe conducted the experiment with him in the framework of formal logic.
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What is a measured quantum system? Suppose we want to measure some parameters of a single electron. For this we have the appropriate device. Device one way or another interacts with the electron and will give us some information about him. But the device itself consists of atoms which in turn consist of subatomic particles. And their interaction with the measured electron will pass by the same laws of quantum mechanics. And described by the same wave equation of schrödinger, that is a probabilistic manner: the whole of the joint to be measured-measuring system will exist in a superposition. In this case, according to physicists, the description of the dimension will not change significantly, if part of the device, which are directly involved in the measurement (e.g. the sensing element and recording device), described as a portion of the overall system. It is impossible to determine the boundary between the measured system and the device, or, according to Michael Mensky, "measuring environment, which should include the observer as a material system" (Mensky M. B. "Man and quantum world"), as the observer also consists of atoms and subatomic particles (waves, if you remember about the wave-particle dualism), and they indirectly, through the device, also interact with the electron.
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In other words, the measured quantum system can be referred in addition to the device and the photons flying from the registered panel to the viewer's eye and the eye itself, the optic nerve, and the divisions of the cerebral cortex, where it will be transferred to the corresponding signal, that is, the whole material environment, which will directly or indirectly interact with the measured electron. The boundary between the measured system and the measurement environment from the point of view of quantum mechanics, random. According to MENA, "the choice of boundaries affects neither the reasoning carried out in the calculations, nor on the simulations themselves. For any choice of the border there are no paradoxes and conceptual problems."
But to a certain point while the observer is not aware of the result of the measurement. Everything is probability somewhere crumbling, and remains the only state from the set of all probable States. Here I want to slow down a bit and try to catch my breath, so as not physics difficult (to know yourself) it all immediately understand.
So again from the very beginning: at the micro level, our world exists only as a set of possible States of quantum systems (individual — single atoms, electrons, etc., and groups of systems of interacting atoms, electrons, photons, etc.). These likely States always coexist. Then a very different situation than in the usual classical world, where we measure just don't know what state the system is: for example, the employee of traffic police from behind a Bush measures the speed of the car, it can suspect that the car exceeds the speed limit, but sure. Measure, recognize, and even can show the readings as evidence. In the quantum world, the probable state coexist: none "policeman" could not prove in court that they measured the speed of the electron (if he could measure her for this electron to fine) was before the time of measurement is so, and not another. And no readings, he would not have helped. As caused by the defense expert, any qualified physicist would have shown that the velocity of the electron immediately before the measurement could be anything, and this particular result recorded by the policeman, was caused by the fact of measurement. More precisely, arose because of the collapse of the wave function of the entire system, including including myself electron "gun" the COP and the atoms of his brain. But the collapse occurred due to the interaction of this measured system with something vague and intangible, what we call the consciousness of the observer, in this case the employee of traffic police.
The probabilistic form of the existence of the microcosm is rigorously proved mathematically and confirmed experimentally. And I have emphasized that because of these properties of modern humanity uses lasers, electron microscopes, consumer electronics, etc. In fact, completely alien to quantum mechanics is the wave-function collapse. Nothing within quantum mechanics does not provide any collapse. Collapse, who is also the reduction of the wave packet, the measurement is just an observable fact. Knowing the initial state of the system, the researcher can easily calculate its evolution using a linear schrödinger equation. Yes, the calculation will carry probabilistic character, it will coexist different States, but physicists and engineers to this for decades of the existence of quantum mechanics used and do an excellent job with applications.
It is unclear why carried out with a quantum system measurement is changing that linear evolution of the jump and pulls out of many of its probable States one. Not always the most probable, and according to the statistical laws is more likely frequently less likely frequently? And what happens with all the other States, where do they go?
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These questions many physicists consider the philosophical and just ignore it. Those who are still trying to deal with this problem, I come to the quite definite conclusion: it's all in our minds, and therefore its solution is directly related to the solution of the question, what is consciousness? What a clear answer in the framework of the natural Sciences (even if we would classify psychology, despite the fact that its subject is, in fact, consciousness) is not in coming years is not expected. One of the most consistent researchers of the physical nature of consciousness, Roger Penrose suggests that the ability to describe the phenomenon of consciousness may appear after having formulated the correct quantum theory of gravity, that is actually after having formulated the theory of everything, what we talked about in the previous article. I'm willing to accept that theory of everything should, of course, to claim and to include the theory of consciousness. Just not sure that such a theory will arise only from material conditions, and, as far as I can judge from his books, Penrose also not sure.
But pending the development of such a theory, we should try to decide who exactly is entitled to be considered as the observer, whose consciousness plays a key role in the manifestation of our reality: physics-experimenter, each individual person, humanity as a whole, a sort of collective conscious? Question about a Higher Intelligence in this case, I stand outside the brackets, because here we are talking not about the Root cause, but the mechanism of interaction between the material world and human consciousness.
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Very important in this context is another thought experiment proposed by one of the greatest mathematicians of the XX century, Nobel laureate in physics, Eugene Vigneron. The experiment went down in history of quantum mechanics called the paradox of Wigner's friend.
Eugene Wigner is schrödinger's cat offered to use his friend of the experimenter. No, no. Wigner not a misanthrope, like Schroedinger's not a knacker. No vials of poison in the experiment is not provided. Instead, it is the light that either lights up or not depending on whether there has been estimated a quantum event. Each Wigner is in the lab, the winger is awaiting the result of the measurement, relatively speaking, in the hallway. As we said above, the boundary of the measured quantum system is elected arbitrarily. For other Wigner it is a natural way includes the bulb and photons, which should reach his eyes, if the lamp is on. But for the Wigner his friend-experimenter is also a part of the measured system! For Wigner, who stands in the hallway, in a superposition is measured, the atom, light and his friend entirely, as the only friend he expects to know the result of the measurement. And if Wigner considers necessary, standing in the hallway, to describe the state of the entire system mathematically, it will be forced to include in this description of his friend.
Finally, the Wigner friend out into the corridor and tells him the result of the measurement: lit or not lit light bulb. For the Wigner wave-function collapse occurs at the moment when he realizes that the measurement is done (a friend came back from the lab). And for a short time, he, according to the laws of the classical world, just don't know the result until a friend report it. But for other wave-function collapse (reduction) occurred earlier, when he saw (not seen) the light from the bulb.
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Imagine, however, that the result of this measurement waiting for other colleagues Wigner in twenty cities around the world. And while he did not tell them about the result of the measurement, for each of these colleagues and myself Wigner and his friend-the experimenter and the instrument, and measured the atom will be in a superposition, that is, in two alternative States at the same time. And the reduction of the wave packet of the entire system happens for them only in the moment when Wigner inform them about the measurement result: someone he can call, people to notify by telegram, to send to someone a letter in the mail (article Wigner describing this experiment was published in 1961, and the Internet, as you know, has not happened). Thus, it is possible that each of the colleagues Wigner has your colleagues and friends who are also waiting for the results of this measurement.
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Eugene Wigner (1902 – 1995), some consider it a contribution to science no less than Einstein
This article Wigner ends with a conclusion about the special role of the observer's consciousness in quantum mechanics. But it is known that he adhered to the more radical beliefs: in his view, a quantum measurement can be considered complete only when all people in the Universe know the result. Many scientists believe that this statement goes beyond physics. But in philosophical terms it is quite difficult to dismiss, as it is based on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and its mathematical apparatus. An alternative point of view of Heisenberg and Schrodinger (in different variations) that the collapse of the wave function occurs in the field of thermodynamic irreversibility (i.e., in the sphere of the macrocosm, where the entropy) is not found sufficient evidence.
It is not surprising that Eugene Wigner, as, however, and Erwin Schrodinger (and not only them) came as a result of understanding the indicators of his scientific work to his interest in Vedanta — one of the areas of Hindu philosophy. This fact only confirms the truth of the Gospel: no man is a prophet in his own country (see: Matt. 13: 57). In fact, for understanding the structure of the world man of the Christian culture does not necessary apply to other people's experience. Christian worldview, Christian philosophy allow for this are not smaller (and from my point of view, large) features. Nothing wrong about Vignere and Schroedinger, nor of other major thinkers who sought and are seeking answers to the ultimate questions of existence in Eastern religious systems, as those systems, I do not want to say. The problem in the Christian Church which for a number of objective and subjective reasons, has allowed the mass consciousness to bring down the toughest and most beautiful doctrine to a lurid fairy forms.
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I mentioned that today in the civilization, which historically is called Christian, is very widespread view of the same Vedanta of the world as illusion, and few people know about the Christian idea of the "modern world". The word meditation is known, perhaps even younger students, and what is Hesychasm in Christianity, he's silent prayer, smart prayer, smart prayer of the heart, the contemplation, the contemplation of Tabor light, know one even within some Christian denominations. And that, according to Orthodox Christians, the true communion with God, which came into the world the Kingdom of heaven which "is within you" (LK. 17: 21) and that have taken to the desert and monasteries, many thousands of Christian ascetics, beginning with the first centuries of Christianity.
A serious problem for the Wigner and schrödinger (as well as any, I guess, a little bit familiar with the laws of the quantum world person) — the spatial and temporal multiplicity "observing and thinking individuals. If all events were played in a single consciousness, then things would be very simple" (Erwin Schroedinger. "My view of the world"). Simply put, the problem is that too many people, and they are too scattered on the ground, and the news they learn at different times. And if the white light was a single man, no problem with quantum mechanics did not exist... Exit they were looking for in Vedanta, where, according to schrödinger, "the perceived multiplicity is only apparent, in reality it does not exist at all." published