Various paradoxes


In this article, we have compiled the ten most controversial paradoxes that show that our world is not as simple as it seems. Who knows, maybe that you manage to find a solution to the paradoxes presented below.

1. Omnipotence paradox

It's pretty well-known paradox that reads as follows: "Ask the almighty man create a stone that he himself can not lift." If you create such a stone does not work, it means the person is not all powerful, and if it works - that person will lose his omnipotence.

Replies there may be several. Perhaps the absolute omnipotence simply does not exist. You can also say that the omnipotent being is not limited by the laws of logic, so it can do whatever it wants.

2. Paradox turtles

This paradox was coined by the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno. The essence of it is this: suppose that Achilles runs 10 times faster than the tortoise, and is beyond the 1000 steps from her. While Achilles will run through 1000 steps, turtle propolzёt another 100 steps. When Achilles will run 100 steps, turtle propolzёt another 10 steps, and so on to infinity. In the end, Achilles never overtake the tortoise. Of course we all know that in real life he'd probably her and caught up and surpassed.

The paradox can be explained by the fact that in reality, space and time can not be divided indefinitely.

3. Grandfather paradox

This paradox invented French pisatele fiction Rene Barzhavel. Suppose that man has created a time machine, went back in time and killed his biological grandfather there in early childhood. As a result, one of the parents was not born traveler. Accordingly, the traveler himself is also not born. This means that in the end he did not go back in time and killed his grandfather and there was still alive.

Options to address the paradox again somewhat. Maybe move to the past is impossible. Or maybe just a traveler can not change it. Also, it is believed that by going into the past, the traveler will create yet another alternate reality in which he will never be born.

4. Ship of Theseus

According to Greek myth, the Athenians has long kept the ship on which Theseus returned from Crete. Over time, the ship began to rot, so it gradually began to change the board. At some point, all the boards of the ship have been replaced by new ones. As a result, there was quite a natural question: "Is this another ship or a completely different?" In addition, there is another question: "What if from old boards to collect another such same ship, which of them will be present?"

In the modern interpretation of this paradox is: "If the original object gradually replace all component parts, will it remain the same object?»

The answer might be: any object can be "the same" quantitatively and qualitatively. This means that after the change of the boards the ship of Theseus is quantitatively the same ship, but qualitatively - is another.

5. The paradox of the heap

Suppose we have a bunch of seeds. If you remove it from one seed, when it ceases to be a heap? whether it will be a bunch if it remains only a single grain? Paradox is explained by the fact that the term "heap" is no precise definition.

6. Abilene paradox

The paradox is this: "One hot night kind of family playing on the porch of the house of dominoes, until the dough is suggested to go relax in Abilene. The trip was going to be a long and tiring. Nevertheless wife immediately, though agreed to go, saying, "Good idea!" My husband did not want to go anywhere, but decided to tune out the rest, and said that he, too, this idea seems very good. Finally in-law is also agreed on the trip. Road to Abilene was very tiring and hot, so that the rest failed. A few hours later the family came back home. In-law said that she did not like the ride and rode it only for the sake of others. My husband said that he, too, was glad not to go, but agreed on the trip, not to spoil the mood of the rest. The wife, in turn, said that she will not want to go, she just wanted to tune out the rest. Finally, the test itself said that suggested the trip just because the surroundings seemed to him boring. Thus, none of them wanted to go to Abilene and agreed only for the sake of others. »

This paradox is a typical example of groupthink.

7. Paradox Grelling

Divide all the adjectives into two groups: avtologicheskie and heterologous. Avtologicheskie adjectives - those who characterize themselves. For example, the adjective "polysyllabic" is polysyllabic, and the adjective "Russian" is Russian.

Heterologous adjectives - those that do not characterize themselves. For example, the adjective "new" is not new, but the adjective "German" is not German.

The paradox arises when it is necessary to determine the adjective "heterologous" to one of two groups. If it describes itself, it is avtologicheskim and not heterologous.

8. The paradox of Mayors

In one country, a decree was issued "The mayors of all cities should not live in your city, and special city mayors." The question is: "Where should live Mayor of Mayors?»

9. Unexpected hanging paradox

One prisoner said: "You are executed at noon next Wednesday. It will be a surprise for you. "The prisoner comes to the conclusion that since he knows the exact time of execution, then the penalty will not be able to become for him an unexpected, and therefore it can not be executed. At noon next Wednesday for him really comes executioner and his execution. And executed really put a surprise to the prisoner.

10. Paradox Evatla

It is an ancient logic problem, the essence of which is: "A certain teacher Protagoras took to his disciples Evatla and began to teach his court case. Evatl promised to pay all tuition as soon win your first case. However, after learning Evatl no hurry to work. Then Protagoras sued him in court. In the end, the judge was unable to make a decision, because if Evatl wins the case, he will be obliged to give money to Protagoras. So he actually loses, so he will not have to pay for their studies Protagoras. And so on to infinity.


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