The history of the birth, rise and fall of the Knights Templar Order, or "Knights Templar", is probably one of the most romantic legends of the world in which we live.
No matter how much time has passed, no matter how many centuries did not cover the gray dust of the bas-reliefs on the graves of the martyrs of the Order, no matter how much was read books and how many times history buffs did not say the name of the great Jacques de Molay - still, still, romance, and dreamers, scientists and hoaxers in different countries still collect backpacks to go hiking for the "Golden Knights Templar." Someone seriously studying maps of mines and mines, scours the ruins of castles and rascherchivaet way the Templars in Europe, someone is looking for his "treasure" in the pages of the bestseller, by seeking to gain his literary fame.
And none of us - neither visionaries nor a scientist, is not given to know, "as it was" - really. We are only historical records and the memoirs of contemporaries, the Inquisition documents and sow the time of writing and sometimes pop-old scrolls from the personal archives of noble families of Europe.
Someone gives the history of the Knights Templar religious overtones, some secular. We try to discover the truth for himself - as much as possible through the midst of centuries.
Marius Francois Granier. "Pope Honorius II, which is the official recognition of the Order of the Knights Templar».
"Knights of the Temple»
Shortly after the successful outcome of the First Crusade and the approval of the land of Palestine of the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem - the first military state, populated mainly by European knights in the Holy Land, a flood of pilgrims, attracted by the idea of a utopian secure life among Christian shrines. Hordes of people, wandering "through the land of Jesus", of course, attracted the attention not only of Muslims, angry seizure of their native territories and cities, but also their location - terrible and uncompromising. The country through which the route passes the pilgrims, was overrun by robbers and murderers. The road to the Holy City became deadly for the pilgrims.
European monarchs were satisfied with the outcome of the Crusade - mission accomplished, the Holy Land nearly cleared. The remaining Muslim populations they considered just a nuisance in the way of the light of the Christian world, and hoped that the knights, who were promised generous allotments, progressively eliminate the interference. Meanwhile, the Kingdom of Jerusalem began to slowly empty - Knights tried to go home to their families and the family nest, and no award could not stop most of them. How to be in this case with the pilgrims, are exposed daily to violence, looting, murder? .. They needed protection.
First, in the history of the Knights Templar, Grand Master - Hugues de Peyen Here he writes about this in 1119, Bishop William of Tyre, while head of the Church of Jerusalem states: "Some of the nobles of knightly origin, devoted to God, religious and God-fearing, expressed their desire spend my life in chastity, obedience and without possessions, gave himself to the service of Mr. Patriarch following the example of the canons regular. " Several knights of high birth, obtain the blessings of the King and the Church, volunteered to take on the care of pilgrims and the protection of all Christians, who moved in large numbers to the Holy Land. To do this, they have been based military order "Beggars Knights' secular foundation of which was equalized and harmonized with the basics of the church. That is, the brothers Templars, entered the Order, did not take the monastic dignity, but mentally and physically, in fact, they have become.
Order headed one of its founders, the noble knight Hugues de Champagne Peyen, became the first in the history of the Grand Master of the Order. And now, before the King and Patriarch of Jerusalem, Hugh and eight of his loyal commanders - Godfrey de Saint-Omer, Andre de Montbard, Gundomar, Godfron, Roral, Geoffrey Bitola, nívar de Mondezir and Archambault de Saint-Aignan took an oath to protect Christians traveling or need help, until the last drop of blood, as well as brought the three monastic vows.
For the absolute historical truth, the author would like to note that, in fact, the basis of this Order became a phenomenon Print Order Tamplierovabsolyutno unprecedented, for many centuries ahead of its time. In this case, an association of knights was another monastic order, there was some spiritual organization - in fact, they organized the first of the familiar to us today, "non-profit organizations", for the sake of propaganda and fundraising ideas. Advocating the idea - the need for the existence of such orders - was already carried out successful defense of the pilgrims, and the collection of funds - and how without it? .. After the Templars themselves were extremely poor - to the extent that the two knights accounted for one horse. In consequence, when the influence of the Templars spread very broadly, they have created a stamp in memory of the bygone days of the Order - the print shows two riders on one horse.
For many a decade the Templars were quite miserable existence, following the charter of the Order of St. Augustine, in the absence of their own. It would have continued if the King of Jerusalem Baldwin II «The leper" somewhat offended person so disastrous state of affairs of the ward he orders not sent to Hugh de Peyena to Pope Honorius II with a requirement to initiate the Second Crusade, citing his need for arrogance Muslim soldiers continued to commit attacks in the territory of the newly formed state.
Baldwin was generally very favorably disposed to the Order of "poor knights" - he even gave them, who did not have any of its own property, the church in his palace south of the ruins of the Temple of Solomon, that they might gather there to pray. This fact served as the starting point of the formation of the Order, which is familiar to us from the descriptions of today: "The Temple" (fr.temple) gave people a reason to call the knights' ones that Temple "," Templars. " On the official name - "poor knights" nobody and never recalled.
De Peyen, accompanied by a small number of comrades who traveled almost the whole of Europe, not only persuading rulers gather troops for the crusade, but a few passing vzymaya reluctantly donations. The highlight of this trip was the presence of Hugh de Peyena and the Knights Templar on the Great Church Council in the French city of Troyes - and the presence of this was due to a personal request of the Pope.
It was useful, and De Peyen as head of the Order, understands the importance of speech in the Council - a good performance could provide support to the Church, and the Church support - support for the heads of the different countries. De Peyen spoke long and eloquently, the spoiled and bewitching blinkers church paintings brave new audience, the Christian world, which takes its source at the throne of Jerusalem. The Council Fathers, subdued his speech, appealed to the presence of the same Bernard of Clairvaux, who did not hide his obvious sympathy for the Templars, with a request to write a new order for the Charter, which all would have been satisfied. Just Fathers also had the honor of Knight Grand and ordered to wear always white with a black dress, decorated with a red cross. At the same time, it was created and the first prototype of the battle flag of the Templars called Bossean.
The Abbot of Clairvaux, who belongs to the Order of Cistercians, brought the fighting spirit and the Charter of the Templars, later called Latin. Bernard wrote: "Soldiers of Christ in the least are not afraid of that commit a sin by killing enemies or danger to their own lives. After kill someone for the sake of Christ and be willing to die for Him, not only completely free from sin, but also very commendable and worthy ».
In 1139 Pope Innocent II issued a bull on which the Templars, at the time, had become a fairly large, well-off order, gave them considerable privileges, such as the creation of the post chaplain, exemption from tithes and permission to build a chapel and to have their own cemetery. But the main thing - wanting to be their own advocates, Pope subdued Order single person himself, putting on master and his chapter solely responsible for the policy and management of the Order. This meant absolute freedom for the Templars. And absolute freedom brings absolute power.
This event is opened to all the Knights of Beggars path of peace and has become a new chapter in their history - the head of unprecedented prosperity.
The golden age of the Order
Manasheskaya Order TamplierovIznachalno clothes, all the brothers of the Order, was divided, according to the Charter, in two categories: "Knights" - or "brothers Chevalier" and "ministers" - or "brother-sergeant." These titles themselves say that in the first category were accepted only knights of noble birth, the second could have to do any man not of noble birth, without any hope to eventually become "brother-Chevalier." Grand Master, who is not an elected figure - each Master during his lifetime had to choose his successor - had virtually unlimited power Control Order, which was granted by Pope. Initially, the Templars were categorically against joining the ranks of brothers priests, but, nevertheless, after a number of decades, since its inception, in the ranks of the Temple there was even a special class of fellow monks, which was very comfortable and even advisable: monks could shed blood, in addition, the service of the Order's own churches.
Because membership in the Order did not admit women, married knights of the Order also took reluctantly, limiting them in the choice of colors for clothing. For example, married Knights were denied the right to wear white clothes as a symbol of purity and physical "sinlessness».
Families married Templars after its entry into the Order of the head, waiting for the unenviable fate of the line of succession. In that case, if a married brother moved away to another world, all his property, according to the "Treaty of Accession", have been reported in the general possession of the Order, and his wife was in a short time to leave the property, so as not to tempt their views and novices of the Order of the Knights. But as the Templars were known philanthropists, the widow, and close family members of the deceased, always receive full financial support from the treasurers of the Order (usually secular, "wage" figures) to the end of life.
Thanks to this policy of membership in the Order of the Templars soon have possessed enormous holdings not only in the Holy Land, but also in European countries: France, England, Scotland, Flanders, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, Germany, Hungary.
Reference: Medieval Castle Temple (Tour du Temple) survived to our time only in the pages of historical documents on ancient paintings and engravings. Parisian "temple" Knights was destroyed according to the decree of Napoleon I in 1810.
Catholic Order of the Poor Knights of Christ in 1119 was based on the Holy Land of Palestine. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Egyptians religious order members left Palestine. By the time they had enormous wealth and vast lands in Europe. A significant part of the monks, the Knights came from a French noble families.
In 1222 it was built the Paris Temple. The castle, surrounded by a deep moat, was considered impregnable. Inside the fortress walls towered seven towers, it was a Gothic church with two apses and lancet openings. Along the walls of the spacious cloister were the barracks and stables.
In the spring of 1306 he arrived in Paris the Grand Master of the Knights Templar - ubelёnny haired Jacques de Molay. He was accompanied by sixty knights of the Order. The procession entered the capital on horses and mules. The priests carried the ashes Master predecessor Molay - Guillaume de Beaujeu. He was transported to Paris and the treasury of the Knights Templar.
Residence of the Master of the Order of the Temple was the main tower. In this powerful facility could only be reached by a drawbridge from the roof of the barracks. The bridge was set in motion complex mechanisms. In a few moments he raised, lowered heavy gate fell forged grates, and Maintower became inaccessible from the ground. The tower was a great Master, accountable only to the Chapter.
Chapter of the Knights Templar met in the Castle Church. In the middle of the main hall of the temple was installed a spiral staircase leading to the crypt. Stone slabs concealed crypt tomb Masters; on one of the levels of the secret dungeon kept Treasury Order.
Also, it is considered to be the ancestors of the Knights Templar banking - it belongs to the treasurers of the Order and the usual idea of the "road" checks. The most interesting thing is that such a scheme is still, we can say, "classics" of modern banking. To appreciate its beauty, simplicity and practicality: the existence of such checks eliminates the need for travelers to carry gold and precious stones with them every moment fearing an attack of robbers and doom. Instead, the owner of the property could come to any "provincial commander" of the Order, and add to its coffers all these things in return receipt, signed by the Chief Treasurer (!!!), and the imprint of his own fingers ... (!!!), to then to peace of mind to hit the road with a small piece of skin. Just for the operation with a check, the Order took a small tax - cashing values specified in the check! .. Think for a minute, not this remind you modern banking? .. If the holder of the check could exhaust its limit, but need the money, the Order gave him any, on account of the subsequent repayment. There was also a highly developed system of what today we would call "Accounting": twice a year, all the checks were sent to the main provincial commander of the Order, where they detail counted, summed balance of treasury and archive. Do not shun knights and usury, or, if you will, "bank loans" - any person can obtain a secured loan under ten percent, while the Jewish moneylenders and government offices were given loans by forty percent.
With such a developed banking structure in the rate, the Templars became necessary and the Court. For example, for twenty-five years, two of the Order of the Treasurer - Gaymar and de Milly - oversaw the treasury of the French monarchy, fulfilling at the same time, at the request of Philip II Augustus, the functions of Minister of Finance, that is, virtually ruling the country. When ascended the throne of St. Louis IX, the French Treasury has been completely transferred to the Temple, staying there as well, and under his successor.
Thus, the "poor knights" in a relatively short time acquired the status of the largest financiers of Europe and the Orient. Among their debtors went absolutely all sectors of the population - from the ordinary citizens of the royal family and to the Church Fathers.
A special place in the list of cases of the Order occupy the same rationalization and charitable activities.
As the Templars were not only the richest of all existing orders, but also the most attractive to new brothers in terms of features, under the auspices of his many outstanding minds and talents of his time.
The Templars are not skimping, spending huge sums to the development of arts and sciences, on the patronage of artists, musicians and poets. Yet, soldiers are soldiers, and the main area of interest was the development of the Temple in areas such as geodesy, cartography, mathematics, physical sciences, building science, seafaring. By the time the Order has long possessed its own, is not controlled by the authorities kings shipyards, ports, its own modern and super-equipped fleet - rather mention that all its ships were magnetic (!!!) compasses. "Sea Knights Templar" actively engaged in commercial cargo - and passenger transportation, transporting pilgrims from Europe to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. For this they received a generous reward and church support.
Not less actively engaged in the Templars and the construction of roads and churches. The quality of travel in the Middle Ages, could be characterized as "continuous looting, multiplied by the lack of roads" - if you're a pilgrim, you can be sure that you are robbed not only thieves, but state tax collectors, with a post at each bridge, each road. And the Templars, to the displeasure of the authorities, this problem was solved - they are engaged in active construction of beautiful roads and strong bridges, which are guarded by their own troops.