Today photographer - Vitaly traveler Taysaev hold us an interesting tour of one of the oldest and majestic castles in France - Vincennes castle. Yes. On the day of the visit, I do not quite I was lucky with the weather. It was cloudy, drizzle drizzle. But, nevertheless, I decided not to wait and visit one of the oldest and most magnificent castles in France - Vincennes castle. To you it was not boring, I decided to write a little about interesting facts: The Curse of the Kings and St. Louis. The castle is located in the east of Paris, metro station (1) Porte de Vincennes. It all started with built in the XII century the royal dynasty of Capet hunting lodge that the efforts of Philip II Augustus and St. Louis IX has grown into a major royal residence. Vincennes castle is sometimes called - the Versailles of East Paris. The very same Versailles, in the south-west of Paris. As Louis IX became a saint and why it cooked in a cauldron. St. Louis IX (November 8, 1226 - August 25, 1270). The greatest statesman of France. The heir to a dynasty of Capet. Its ability to solve disputes government had authority not only in France but also outside the country. As king, he strengthened the judicial power of the crown and built a lot of monuments of culture and art, such as Reims Cathedral, the chapel of Saint Chapelle. Louis XI to take an active part in the crusade against the infidels. During his first crusade, this fine young man was captured by the Saracens. His wife - Margarita Provansskaya was forced to pay a huge debt for the captive king - a port city, which belonged to the French crown, which hardly captured Louis IX earlier. However, just freed from captivity, brave King said he did not lay down the sword until the last knight will not return to France. So nearly six years in exile, he led a bloody battle. Returning home, he strengthened the state promulgated the "Pragmatic Sanction" that protect the independence of the French church of Rome. Deciding that the first campaign was not enough, he goes back to the East, this time to Tunisia. In vain he tries to summon the kings of other European states against the "infidels," tired from hiking in the French army began the deadly disease. First, the death of his son, and later died after an illness himself, Louis IX, the great French king. Since refrigerators in the Middle Ages were not, and kings were buried in the abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris, gentlemen, the French decided that the king should be boiled in a cauldron for safekeeping. Welded body, removed the meat from the bones. The remains nailed in a wooden box and shipped to France. Nearly a year after the death of Pope canonized king Communion him a saint. The remains of the king were given the royal heirs and took pride of place in the residences. Yes, I understand your reaction, but then it was pretty darn fashionable. We continue the tour of the castle. The approach to the castle blocks deep ditch, in the Middle Ages it was filled with water and poured on the heads of besieging boiling oil. Brrr .... as presented, goosebumps)
Just until recently, it was a barracks for soldat.
It is really that lived here are the same soldiers who had heroically step in the first year of the Emperor Napoleon I of France to Russia in 1812 and is also deplorable retreat virtually destroyed by a harsh winter and partisan otryadami.
At the beginning of the Hundred Years War, the French King John the Good (1350-1364) builds - dungeon, ie central castle building, intended to house the private apartments of the king and his entourage. This six-story bashnya- rushes up to nearly 50 meters - the tallest building in medieval France. Donjon was completed in 1370 with the participation of Charles V. Construction flew the French crown in kopeechku.
Interestingly, with Louis IX in the castle was got a tradition here expect the birth of the first-born and heir to the royal power. For history buffs, I advise you to read the series of books by Maurice Druon - "The Accursed Kings". In 2011, I happened to be a guest in the home of Bernard Druon, nephew of the famous writer. Just at the Vincennes castle and were born "The Accursed Kings" - the three sons of Philip the Fair. After the pictures, you will find a fascinating historical background, why kings were "cursed. This castle has long been a royal residence. Its walls are guarded by many Capet and Valois from their enemies. It is only during the reign of the Sun King Louis XIV Vincennes castle lost its status as a royal residence, which is transported to Versailles. And during the French Revolution, the castle has become a large armory. And then he began the grim prison, as well as the Tower of London. Among its prisoners were Henri Navarre, the Marquis de Sade, Diderot, Raspail, confessor of Napoleon Bonaparte and many others. In XX century, good Frenchmen were executed in the dungeons of the castle of the famous spy Mata Hari.
Why is the king became a curse? Philip IV the Fair, or "Iron King" (5 .10. 1285 - 29 .11. 1314), this is quite an interesting character in French history have played a huge role in the development and fate of the state. In the time of Philip the Fair throughout Europe it was circulated Order of the Knights Templar. This powerful and wealthy organization during the Crusades amassed huge fortunes. Taking advantage of the accumulated money, the Templars were among the first in Europe imposed usury, in our opinion, they began to lend money at interest. Their debtors became powerful lords, landowners, merchants, members of the royal court, and finally, the kings themselves. Many of them suffered because the Templars were protected by very powerful forces - the Church and the Pope. Only Philip IV the Fair, was really "Iron King" to oppose it. In the autumn of 1296 Pope Boniface issued a decree (the bull) Clericis laicos, strictly forbidden to the clergy - to pay tribute laity, the laity - to demand such payments from the clergy without the express permission of Rome. For Philip, who was always short of money, it was too much. And in 1303, the keeper of the royal seal Guillaume de Nogaret came with his entourage in Rome and publicly slapped the iron glove of Pope Boniface XVIII. Dad up to this point, afraid to move even a finger, not that thrash iron glove in the face. In general, the pope a few days unable to bear this arrogance posted soul to heaven. After 10 months under pressure from the French crown went to dine with the Lord and the next Pope Boniface IX. And the next Pope Clement V, elected in 1305 moved the papal residence from Rome to Avignon, in France. Thus, the papacy was in the hands of the French crown. When the power of the church began in the hands of the authorities of the Royal Philip IV the Fair began to act. After collecting evidence, the fact that the Templars are heretics, organize orgies, spit on the crucifix at the dedication of the Order, pray to the devil in the goat legs (all statements are perhaps controversial), he held one of the largest mass of operations at the time. As many as 3 weeks were a closely guarded secret preparations for this no easy at all to the time of operation. Royal officials, commanders of military units (as well as local inquisitors) until the last moment did not know that they had to make: orders received in sealed packages that are allowed to open only on Friday, October 13, 1307. That's where the term and went - "devil's Friday the 13th." On opening the envelope that night, they killed many of the Templars sleeping right in the beds, many have been arrested, including the Supreme Master of the Templars - Jacques de Molay. Other Templars were sentenced to various prison terms, including life. The leaders of the Order appeared before the papal court of 18 March 1314 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Hugues de Pairaud, Visitator General of the Order, and Geoffroy de Gonnevil, Prior of Aquitaine, listened to his sentence in silence. However, the Grand Master of the Order, Jacques de Molay and Geoffroy de Normandy Prior Charnay loudly protested, denied the allegations and claimed that their holy order remain clean before God and men. Philip the Fair immediately demanded their condemnation of both lapsed into heresy a second time, and the same night they were burned on one of alluvial islands of the Seine, the so-called Jewish island. In flames, Master of the Order, Jacques de Molay, writhing in unbearable pain, cursed the Pope Clement V, King Philip IV the Fair and Guillaume de Nogaret. The first father died from depression and migraine, it began to treat crushed emeralds, which subsequently caused a perforation of the stomach. Then he died in terrible agony Guillaume de Nogaret, the man with the fear of life, even outside the state. On the hunt mysterious disease grabbed by the throat, and Philip the Fair. He died in agony at the castle of Fontainebleau. Also, the royal family was cursed Capet to 13 tribes. Subsequently, all the kings of this dynasty almost did not live up to 40 years. Capetian dynasty Valois changed. Numerous disputes of succession and the weakening of royal power led to the bloody Hundred Years War, which put an end to the new messiah - Saint Joan of Arc Maid of Orleans. Chapel and a closed courtyard designed by architect Louis Levo
The crown of Gothic architecture, the chapel of the Sainte-Chapelle (Sainte-Chapelle), on the structure of it is very similar to his sister - in a chapel of the same name Parizhe.
Going into the chapel, I was a witness that's such an unusual exhibition. Who are these birds? Why are they here?
Ninny on the number of birds per inch square, I began to talk with a guide Frenchman. However, I forgot to ask him about it, because He struck me as even more excellent knowledge of Russian language. )) In general, this nice Monsieur - talking freely in 7 languages of the world, not counting frantsuzskogo.
Let's go, or rather climb further. We are in the dungeon!
That's the door to the royal bedchamber. Naturally oak!
Nowhere else in France, in addition to the Vincennes castle you see the royal chambers, such as they were in the Middle Ages. Unfortunately, the interior is not as well represented as the Royal Castle Luary.
This concludes our tour comes to an end. In the photo you can see the cut zamka.
Finally! The castle has its own personal guard and patron. Do not believe it - it's a cat! When I asked, - "Who is this?". The caretaker of the castle said good-naturedly, Monsieur, c'est chat du chateau. And he called it a huge name of the Queen, I was out of the notebook, and now I do not remember. In this cute cat has a husband, a true king of the castle.