Rare and endangered marine mammals representatives

Marine mammals - a group of aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals descended from land animals, which tied for the second life at a certain stage of evolutionary development with sea water element. In this post I want to tell you about some of the rare species of animals.

Narwhal - a form close to the vulnerable polozheniyu.Eti unique animals that resemble unicorns live in the cold Arctic waters.

In the Middle Ages because of the "horns", which is believed to possess magical powers, narwhal destroyed in large quantities. However, even today unusual tusk may cause the murder of whales.

In addition, the earlier to hunt narwhals Eskimos used harpoons hand, and these days are often hunted by the motor boats and automatic harpoons. Everything else, narwhals - are among the most vulnerable to climate change, and pollution of marine mammals in the Arctic.

Narwhal is listed in the International Red Book and the Red Book of Russia. The total population of this species is about 80 thousand individuals.

Interestingly, the "horn" is not narwhal horn. In fact, it modified the left front tooth, who grew up in a straight line and curved shallow spiral tusk. It is hollow and weighs about 10 kg. Long-tusked narwhals have only males, females also have shorter and direct "horns».

Southern whales
The southern whales, endangered species of whales vymiraniya.Tri species belonging to this genus are found in different regions of the globe. Southern right whale inhabit the area of ​​the Southern Ocean, the North Atlantic right whale lives in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Japanese whale - in the North Pacific. All of these species are listed in the International Red Book. Moreover, the North Atlantic right whales and the Japanese are among the most endangered whales in the world. Thus, the number of North Atlantic right whales is presently about 300 - 350 species, and the Japanese whales - about 500 individuals.

Due to the relatively slow movement, tendency to swim close to the coast and the high content of fat, southern right whales in the past been one of the most desirable prey of whalers. And today, despite the fact that whaling is banned in most countries, the person is still the biggest threat to these species.

According to scientists, one of the main reasons for reducing the number of southern right whales is that the latter often fatally wounded Court. And besides, southern right whales, like other cetaceans, often entangled in fishing gear. These two anthropogenic factors, such as the North Atlantic right whale make up 48% of all deaths of this kind.
Southern right whales can reach up to 18 meters in length and weigh up to 91 tons, which makes them much more gray and humpback whales, but less blue. A distinctive feature of the southern right whales are thick horny skin on the head, which acquire a whitish color due to the parasitic crustaceans, whale lice.

Vaquita, the view on the brink of extinction. It is the smallest marine mammal (the length is less than 145 cm) lives exclusively in shallow lagoons of the northern part of the Gulf of California. Scientists estimate that only a wild left between 100 and 300 individuals of this species, which makes it the most threatening position compared with other members of the order Cetacea.

Today, the number of pigs California continues to decline, and this is primarily due to the fact that animals are often caught in gill nets (netting, which was exhibited along the coast). For example, according to research conducted in El Golfo de Santa Clara, one of the three largest marinas, home to the California pigs, fishing nets are responsible for about forty deaths of these animals per year (that is, die every year about 17% of the population California pigs living in the harbor of El Golfo de Santa Clara). Scientists believe that only a complete ban on the use of fishing nets in the habitat of these animals help save a rare species. Other threats to the life of vaquita is the pollution of their environment.

It is also important to note that if this kind of completely disappear in the wild, it will have a significant impact on the ecology of the northern part of the Gulf of California. So, can decrease the number of sharks in the diet which includes vaquita, and happen overpopulation of certain types of bottom-dwelling fish, squid and crustaceans, serving food to these animals.
Interestingly, the vaquita is moving very slowly. She periodically rise to the surface to breathe, and almost immediately disappears into the water. In suitable conditions, this animal can live about 20 years.

Blue Whale
The blue whale, an endangered species. Even before the beginning of the 20th century, the largest animals on Earth were common in almost all the oceans (the estimated number was then 202 thousand - 311 thousand individuals).

Drawing a blue whale in comparison with the diver:

But then they began shooting, and for a century view almost completely disappeared. When in 1966 came into force an international ban on the catch of blue whales, the number of species began to increase gradually. Today, according to researchers in the wild live about 10-25 thousand blue whales.

Blowhole blue whale (the head directed to the right):

Because of their enormous size adult blue whales have no natural enemies. However, they can be mortally wounded after a collision with large vessels, as well as die entangled in fishing nets. In addition, the increased background noise in the ocean, in particular because of the sonar, interfere with the whales to navigate in space, and "communicate" with each other, which in turn makes it difficult to find a partner for reproduction.

Source: www.nat-geo.ru


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