You can argue long what should be the public urban transport and time and time again to reinvent the wheel with square wheels, but better to see how the situation is the case in developed countries and to compare with what we have now.
So at the beginning of March we Anatoly Dolgachev and Alexander Samsonov drove in various cities in Europe and praised the work of the public transport of Gdańsk. By public transport are tram, bus, trolley, subway, city train, waterbus. All these modes of transport in different variations is present in Europe, but the most popular in the cities, comparable in area and population with Vladivostok, it is destroyed by a tram here. And he is popular in all the cities and in the small Pilsen and in millions of Munich and Strasbourg and in the plains no less mountainous than Vladivostok, Prague.
Trams in Europe run on ordinary roads with cars sometimes together sometimes by dedicated band often in the center of the road. For this dedicated band also allowed movement of buses.
Dedicated tram lane in Pilsen with a moving bus on it
If the road narrows, and there is the likelihood of congestion, preventing the movement of the tram, the movement of cars at this location is not allowed. Because of this tram is not in traffic and runs on a schedule, which is very convenient.
Tram in Europeanization is a high-speed transport, sometimes had to watch as our car, riding up the hill to the maximum permitted speed of 60 km / h, easily ahead of the tram running 80 kilometers under the tram drivers see for speeding not fined.
Several trams, such as this one Prague, may, if necessary, to lie down and literally on the road that would be able to call the tram wheelchair users or a woman with a baby carriage.
In Strasbourg, for the convenience of disabled people just lifted tram stops, making them the likeness of railway platforms.
In addition to the ultra-modern Czech Republic still appear old-fashioned trams:
Tram in Prague
Tram in Pilsen
But even within the old tram it looks technologically. If you do not pay attention to graffiti, that is, and the clock and the scoreboard indicator stops seats clean and whole.
If in the neighboring Czech Prague and Pilsen trams are different, in the Bavarian Munich and Nuremberg trams of the same model.
Streetcar in Munich
Tram in Nuremberg
In Strasbourg and Zurich trams also have their own unique look and feel, in my opinion, are the face of the city.
Tram in Zurich
Tramway in Strasbourg
In all the cities we visited. This Prague, Pilsen, Munich, Zurich, Strasbourg and Nuremberg municipal public transportation is everywhere a similar mechanism fare. Everywhere there are travel tickets valid a certain time. From short 30 minutes or one day, prior to the actual travel of up to a year. There are also tickets for a single trip, but they are quite expensive. The cheapest one-time trip to Pilsen 13 rubles. The most expensive in Zurich 136 rubles. By the way, all of Zurich is the most expensive of these cities. We used the 24-hour travel, leisure, they are most convenient.
The effect of such travel on any public transport for 24 hours. After buying and before using the ticket must be validated, since the composting begins countdown. Typically, punches are right in the OT,
but it happens that they are only on the street, you have to be careful. Do not punch travel is considered invalid and the ticket for the 5 days we double-checked. Checking it here such a device that reads the bar code.
In Prague, the daily travel costs 176 rubles, 96 rubles in Pilsen, Munich have the opportunity to buy one ticket for a group of up to five people cost 400 rubles for three people it is cheaper than buying each of the daily travel for 220 rubles. In Zurich, the daily travel costs 300 rubles if you want to use transport between one night and five in the morning, you need to pay 175 rubles more. In other cities the night tariff is included. In Strasbourg, there are daily Trio, a group of three people to the value of 210 rubles, the daily per person is 150 rubles. On one trip ticket costs 56 rubles. At the entrance to Strasbourg, we met intercept parking.
There is such parking 128 rubles cheaper than park your car in the center and part of the 128 rubles a ticket "back / back" worth 108 rubles. In Nuremberg, single ticket costs 100 rubles, 200 rubles daily.
Tickets can be bought for around here in these machines, which are located on or metro stop.
In addition to notes and coins machines accept credit cards. Sometimes it is easy to understand with guns is sometimes difficult, in Zurich we are confused with night tariff and bought tickets at the reception in the hotel. But the most interesting mechanism fare Cheshkov implemented in Pilsen, the city where the famous cook in the whole world Plzensky Prazdroj beer or Pizner Urkvel. So in Pilsen fares can be paid via SMS. During the operation, the Commission really taken 4 crown, probably cellular company. How it exactly works, we understand did not have time, but most likely after sending SMS with a code word to a special number you have from the account written off the money, and you're on the phone comes confirmation messages zarezezrvirovannogo rooms and you only need to show the controller the SMS screen of phone.
At first glance, the ultimate cost of public transport in Europe can not fail to shock, our man with nostalgia about 15 rubles. But on the other hand it is not so bad. Residents of the city who regularly use public transport, have travel facing much cheaper. For example, in Prague, the daily travel costs 176 rubles, quite a serious amount of money and travel for one year will cost 7600 rubles. Or 30 rubles for every working day. With their average salary of 50 000 rubles to pay 30 rubles a day trip to the convenient public transport is not so difficult. In addition, there are always travel for students and pensioners, who are still 2 times cheaper, and the average pension there is 2 times higher than ours. And when you consider that public transport runs on a schedule and night, even such a seemingly high price does not seem exorbitant, the more so for the poor on public transport are significant discounts.
Tram runs on a schedule that is hanging on a stop
Very often hang electronic displays that show the time before the arrival of the tram a certain number. These boards have widely even in a rundown Pilsen
It is evident that the cost of travel is different everywhere, and especially the cost depends on the country the most expensive was the Switzerland, the Czech Republic cheap. In the second place value is the size of the city, which is natural because it is one thing to carry for two hundred thousandth of Pilsen and quite another for the millionth Prague. However, it should be noted that Pilsen is divided into two zones, the second zone is a suburb and suburb Pilsen territorial increases almost to the size of Prague, respectively Expensive and tickets of all kinds, if they operate on a large area. Besides Pilsen divided into zones polutoramillionnom Munich. Do you want to ride only in the center, pay a sum, you want all over the city, the other.
A poster with the zonal division of Munich
The main conclusion: Public transport in Europe goes on schedule, often faster than personal, working long, has a reliability: he can be trusted, and you can count on it. Then and only then public transport is fully fulfills its purpose, it is gaining popularity among the middle class, replacing personal vehicles for daily use.
Some general conclusions and observations
1.Prodavaemye tickets are valid for all kinds of public transport. Drivers in ticket sales do not participate.
2. On all kinds of public transport has a schedule that followed. As a rule, there are electronic boards informing about the time of arrival of the next vehicle.
3.Obschestvenny transport is long enough (late), there are night flights, which can cost more.
4.Stoimost directions, usually depends on the distance. There is a city "zoning" in terms of price directions. The lowest graduation, "city" and "suburbs", but there may be more zones. As a rule, there are discounted rates (discount up to 50%) for pupils, students, pensioners, the unemployed, etc.
5.Prodavaemye tickets are one-time (per trip), as well as a variety of "travel": 0 to 5 hours, 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per month and so on, provide passengers the opportunity to travel on one ticket with transfers.
6.Suschestvuet two types of control. Turnstiles at the entrance (sometimes at the output), and composting. In both cases, the passenger "activates" a ticket at the beginning of its use.
7.Rabotayut controllers that come into public transportation or stand on the exit. Controllers prescribe penalties (and not "sell tickets»)
8.Bolshoy popularity and demand in the urban transport system uses tram. Trams have priority, are frequent, with great speed, where vehicles can interfere with the tram, the tram goes on dedicated paths (even if it reduces traffic Rows rest of transport). If the tram tracks isolated, but paved, then allowed him to walk to buses.
9.Suschestvuyut city trains, even where there is a subway. Bahn in the city is paid at the same rate and the same ticket as the rest of the transport. City trains run both underground and on the ground.
10. Almost nowhere trolley lines. In the cities of the viewing trolley it was found only in Pilsen.
Public transport on the price / quality ratio is designed for broad categories of the population, from the richest to the poorest. For example, you can often see a situation where the main street, filled with expensive shops, tram and it is the only available means of transport. (Not only parking, but also the movement of private vehicles on the streets is prohibited.). Public transport is of high quality and reliability, and the middle class is chosen as the primary means of transportation in the city.
What difficulties may be encountered in Vladivostok: First and foremost we have to penalize prohibited by law in place, and this leads to the need to put turnstiles, to check the tickets when boarding or disembarking, and this creates, first, inconvenience water Second, increase the cost of purchasing equipment.
The second difficulty is low availability in our public transport that does not allow to fully introduce common travel. However, this problem can be solved if the contract with the carrier, and to pay them a fixed number of flights. In such a case, the independent carriers will disappear need to wait at bus stops, ramming passengers and arrange races on the streets.
The third is the destruction of the tram, but on the other hand, probably, if you go to the European level, the tram park requires a fundamental renewal and reboot.