The most famous monument of the Italian Milan later became the Cathedral, whose full name is "Santa Maria Nashente." This magnificent building of Gothic architecture called even a symbol of Milan, and because it is located right in the center of the city. See Milan Cathedral own eyes - is not that seen in the photographs, although they convey his grace and beauty.
The first stone in the construction of this Gothic church laid Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1386, and the facade of the project approved in 1805 by Napoleon. The cathedral is the only one in Europe, built of white marble.
On the construction site of the Duomo (the so-called Cathedral of Milan), in earlier times stood the sanctuary of the Celts during the Roman Empire - Temple of Minerva, and later the church of Santa Tecla (IV-VI century), from the VII century - the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore ( it was demolished to make way for the new cathedral).
Specialists for the construction of the temple in the Gothic style was invited from Germany and France, although initially involved in the project by the Italian architect Simone de'Orsenigo. In 1470, the post of chief architect invited Dzhuniforte Solari. He invited his aid Bramante and Leonardo da Vinci, and they offered to combine the gothic style with renaissance, with the result that there was an octagonal dome.
In 1417 the unfinished cathedral consecrated by Pope Martin V. Opening of the temple took place in 1572, it was solemnly consecrated by St. Charles Borromeo.
In 1769 it was erected 104-meter spire with a gilded statue of the Madonna at the end. After that, Milan have passed a law that no building should not obscure the patroness of the city. In the XIX century it was built "stone forest" of 135 marble spiers aimed at the sky.
During the construction of the Cathedral was replaced by many generations of people involved in erecting it. And because they are well aware that the completion of the construction did not come to see them.
Not only Italian masters took part in the construction of this splendor, but also French and German architects. And now there constantly, you can see the forest and other structures - in fact have to constantly renovate Cathedral.
The building is just a big, across the top adorned with numerous spiers and turrets, carved decorations, why look like a weightless lace. Impressive facade of the cathedral, gentle white and milky with a slight pinkish tinge.
At the height of the building of the cathedral up to 157 meters. This is the second in the world of the Gothic Cathedral of capacity, after the Seville Cathedral, which was rebuilt from the mosque. Inside the Duomo - 11,700 square meters.
Dedicated to the Milan Duomo - Holy Madonna. Her gilded statue is set on the highest spire, at an altitude of 108 meters 5.
Milan suffered greatly during the German bombing of World War II. It was destroyed more than 60 per cent of urban buildings. Among the survivors, and the building was untouched and the Cathedral "Santa Maria Nashente».
Church Gothic period is traditionally decorated with numerous sculptures, after Endless Circuits are the main decorations Gothic buildings.
So Milan Cathedral in 2245 has a very different and remarkable sculptures. This statues of saints, and depicting scenes from biblical stories, phantasmagoric and strange animals. In decorating the building detail shown many faces of the Middle Ages. Logically, you can assume that most of them - is building sponsors and their families.
Some female figures are the central balcony of the facade is very similar to New York's Statue of Liberty, and it is reasonable to consider it the prototypes.
Another amazing feature of the Milan Cathedral is that on the roof, equipped with both a terrace, accessible by elevator or stairs. Around the tower spiers all 135 - a real stone forest.
The roof can be bypassed around the perimeter and in great detail from different angles see statues of angels, chimera, biblical characters. So exquisitely executed each sculpture, facial expressions, body language, and clothing items that you just want to stand and admire this true art.
Dozens of relics collected in the Milan Cathedral. Among them, a wooden crucifix, specially adapted to the procession in 1576, during the invasion of the plague. Impressive tombstone mausoleum of Gian Giacomo Medici, by sculptor Leon Leon. It is the most famous tomb in the Cathedral, which ordered Pope Pius IY, brother Giacomo. On the tomb of the two allegorical figures of Peace and War, he depicted himself Giacomo Medici, who lived from 1495 to 1555.
The Milan Cathedral kept relic - one of the nails that were nailed to the cross of Christ. Three nail just was. One of them was thrown into the sea, he calmed the storm. The second nail is in the Cathedral of Monza. The third nail was transformed into a horse's bridle for the emperor. Later, Emperor Theodosius gave the Holy Nail, converted into bits Bishop Ambrose of Milan. Now this relic is located above the main altar in the center of the Cathedral, placed in a precious tabernacle, consisting of a dome with a figure of Christ triumphant on eight columns with gilded bronze.