September 27, 2003 Kyiv celebrated an unusual anniversary - exactly 150 years ago in the city began the great "era bridge." Today in the Ukrainian capital, there are about seventy different bridges - large and small, nameless and very famous.
The very first attempt to "rein in" Dnepr, throw it through the bridge, refer to the first quarter of the XII century, to the reign of the Prince of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh.
Since the end of the XVII century, when Ukraine was drawn into the orbit of Russian political, pontoon bridges and then were directed by the great river, facilitating communication with Moscow many messengers and officials. However, these were temporary structures.
Talk about what time would have to Kiev to get a fixed bridge were conducted throughout the XVIII century, but only the arrival of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I in 1829 pushed the issue forward. The monarch, who oversaw the construction of a new fortress in Kiev, also instructed to build a stone bridge across the Dnieper.
Chain Bridge, which was the first in the city of "permanent", built in 1853 by English engineer Charles de Vignoles.
In 1870, the opportunity to comfortably cross the Dnepr received not only pedestrians and cab drivers.
Railway bridge of military engineer Amanda Struve amazed the people of Kiev not less than de Vignola brainchild. Firstly, it was completely made of metal, which at the time was, of course, a rarity. Secondly, the Chain Bridge, designed for pedestrians and carriages, was open, and his train "colleague" was a tracery tunnel. The length of the miracle of Kiev was 1, 5 kilometers - it was the longest bridge in the world! And another interesting fact: in the construction of a railway bridge for the first time in Europe was used caisson foundation. "Record Breaker" was the name of the Darnytsa bridge - the name of a nearby suburb of Kiev (now part of the city).
Kiev prolih third bridge over the Petrovskaya Alley, and was the first bridge in Kiev park. The history of its construction is quite unusual. The fact is that in the early twentieth century Petrovskaya Alley, starting from the current street Grushevskogo, rested against the slope of the mountain. It was decided to eliminate the slope, and above it for the convenience of the public, strolling in the garden of the Royal Merchant, to build the bridge. However, Yevhen Paton, author of the project, proposed an original solution. As a result, first "collected" a bridge and lower it to a pre-built support of concrete piles, and only then from the finished bridge removed earth masses. Quite a rare case in the world!
For many years, this lightweight openwork bridge, which offers a wonderful overview of the urban landscape, is particularly sympathetic lovers, where, in fact, it was the informal name - "Bridge of Kisses».
In 1916 he began to build a second railway bridge - Podolsky. He had to close the railway ring around Kyiv. Alas, do not have time to finish the construction. It was the First World War, it changed the battle for Ukraine's independence, the intervention of foreign troops. In short, for the construction of a transport facility had neither the means nor the time. Raising it ended only in 1929.
At the beginning of June 1920 from Kiev retreating Polish troops blew up the Chain Bridge. City long lost touch with the Left Bank. Restore the destroyed bridge was not possible. Its pillars built a new bridge, named after the revolutionary Eugenia Bosch. The new bridge was very similar to the former, and citizens continued to call it the Chain.
The Second World War turned Kiev bridges in ruins.
Pont, who have put the Germans in 1941