The new ship is lowered from stocks. Under the joyful noise and the sound of the orchestra is divided bottle of champagne on board the wishes of a long and happy sailing.
And few know that the bottle - atoning sacrifice. which replaces the human body, through which the ship was to slip on the road to the river or the sea ...
Housewarming. But first, as usual, the apartment does not include the owner and cat. Otherwise - it is unfortunate. This, too, replacing the ceremonial killing of a man ...
According to legend, in the medieval German city of Magdeburg hit by three new gates - is a royal maid did not sell his son so that he bricked into the wall of the fortress. The maid of honor has wanted to get married and needed a dowry. But the groom to learn about the true cost of dowry, with horror and disgust rejected his beloved killer.
Tradition says that when the basis of the Copenhagen earth embankment made of stone vault under which walled up the little girl.
In Germany, for the children of parents buying. At the western Slavs sacrificed often brings the first passer-by accidentally walked past the workers at the time of laying the foundation. In Bulgaria and Serbia in the walls of fortresses and towers are often walled wives builders. There is evidence that such terrible practices existed in Moldova, Ukraine, Russia. Even the Slavic word "Detinets" (Fortress), some historians derive from children sacrificed in the tab.
Similar victim knew China, India, Mexico, Peru, all European nations.
In the construction of important state buildings and fortresses human sacrifices, and Alexander the Great and the Roman emperors. And the Papuans of New Guinea had only recently considered that the threshold of a new house must be sprinkled with blood.
The early Christians strongly opposed the construction of bloody victims, demanding that people have replaced the animals. But defeating the pagans to Christianity reconciled with the ancient custom, and builders killer, apparently, got off with only a sacramental.
Lawyers feudal society, explained the necessity of building a sacrifice to pay tribute to the spirits of the land. The theologians of the Middle Ages saw the participation of victims in the similarity with the fate of Jesus Christ, the innocent, he was brought by God the Father as a sacrifice for all mankind. Unfortunate as a child or a passerby paid with their lives for the benefit of future inhabitants and defenders of the city or castle.
Zeitgeist forced eventually replace animal sacrifices people. However, in the construction of buildings received minor so long ago. In the XVII century in Aachen immured in a new tower cat. The Poles had the custom tab at the house to dig under one of the corners of the future of the cock ... That is the sacrifice still brings, but not human, or builders and residents of the new houses will have to die. Who and what will destroy them?
Ethnographer DK Zelenin tried to trace the origin of this custom.
Medieval "spirits of the earth", in his opinion, the heirs of a much more ancient and power spirits. Initially sacrificed to appease the totem-trees, which people believed their ancestors and patrons. In England and some other countries, traditional festivals around the maypole. In the Carpathian Hutsul and Western Slavs, there are many legends about the children of the trees, especially the mighty Dubovich.
Everyone knows the name of the great Swedish scientist Linnaeus. But it is unlikely many people know that he belonged to a noble family, who, along with two other proud clans led, according to legend, descended from the ancient lime tree with three trunks - by the nature of each barrel.
And to this last example does not really seem too exotic, remember that the New Year we all gather around the Christmas tree ...
Now reborn beautiful custom to plant in honor of the birth of the baby tree. Once this practice was considered very useful - the spirit of a tree grew for a newborn reliable patron. On days when the trees were patrons of the people, and recalls the now popular calendar Druids.
We in Ukraine, after the boy was taken to plant an apple tree or a sycamore, and in honor of the girl - a pear or viburnum. In the fairy tale "Geese-swans" apple fleeing persecution Ba-be-Yaga girl with her brother.
Trees were revered people. But it is best to cut the trees and had to build the homes. Understandable
but that their spirits have to pay off - or spirits could avenge the death of his abode. How to pay off? And give them the "satisfaction" of human blood!
Later, a large steel building stone. But the custom is already entrenched. An interesting proof of the initial communication sacrifice it with trees, used to make the house rather than the house itself D. Zelenin sees in the Babylonian documents which refers to the victims' spirits bricks "(that is, again, the components of the home, not in the spirit of the house general).
Victims ... First people. Then the animal: a bull, a rooster, a cat. And today it is only a cat let in the house first.
But even in the middle of the XIX century there were grim and perhaps justified rumors of human sacrifice made in Germany superstitious workers during the laying of the railway bridge!
In 1928, the population of one area of Yugoslavia was gripped by fear and anger because of the rumor that railroad seek the child to sacrifice him ...
There is another custom, also associated with the fear of death, but much more human and understandable contemporary.
Historian H. Eidelman in his book "I am an ancestor," wrote: "The products of the old masters, whether it's an amazing tomb of Ali Hakim or complex patterns covering a wall, board, clay vessel, if a good look, there is imperfection: there is not enough curl here 999 repetitive patterns like one nedorisovanny. The old masters did it on purpose: there is a complete work in this world, and the one who dorisovyvaet all patterns are no longer looking for work and announces the continuation of death, that he has nothing more to do on the ground. Masters cheat and go out of the world, do not finish the job, but those who look at her, saying: "We have not yet completed their cases. We are alive ».
Hundreds of people in the past has been a strong tradition: no one job is not to lead all the way to the end, to absolute perfection, even if it is possible. The Turks still believe the belief that as long as man builds a house, he can not die. And many countries people familiar tale of a city that doomed as soon cease to be built. This legend, such as exists in Estonia's Tallinn. And we, in Kiev, still lives the legend of "inviolable wall" Hagia Sophia.
Straw - primarily means to live, to hope for the future ...