Official sociology lies, the number of poor in Russia for almost 50%. Chance to escape the poverty they do not.
In one of the most luxurious hotels in the capital "Baltschug Kempinski" was a presentation of the analytical report "Poverty in Russia: Who are they? How do they live? To strive for? ", Prepared by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In contrast to the reports of the leading sociological companies, the results of studies which are often met with a fair amount of skepticism because obviously the custom nature of their interviews, representatives of academic science of Russian Academy of Sciences presented a study on a rare ruthlessness conclusions.
144-page report, experts of the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences gives a clear picture of the impasse into which came social policy and irreversibility of processes of social stratification.
Commenting Most published research results, according to which the "middle class" in Russia is becoming the most widespread social stratum of the population, Ph.D., winner of the State Prize in Science and Technology of Russia, Director of IP RAS, Professor Mikhail Gorshkov subjected to a low-key, but tough obstruction colleagues Society is like a pop figures.
"When referring to some sociological studies suggest that in today's Russia the most widespread category of the population has become a" middle class ", estimating its share in the structure of the population in 60 or even 70 percent, then you realize that here there is a methodological error made in research or deliberately misleading the society, - said Professor Gorshkov. - Unfortunately, this predominance of "middle class" in modern Russia is not, and in the next 8-10 years will not under any circumstances ».
According to data presented by Mikhail Gorshkov, the most mainstream of the population in Russia are low-income citizens, as well as those whom sociologists call "needy." As of spring 2008, when the study was conducted, they accounted for 43 per cent of the population. Explaining the methodology of the study, Professor Gorshkov emphasized that social scientists have used 50 indicators of the level of the social life of the individual. Basis for admission into the category of low-income citizens, served as a monthly average income per household. For the "poor", the figure was 4449 rubles per person for the "low-income" and "needy" - 5789 rubles.
According to the researchers, representatives of the category of "poor" any prospect deprived of all - their social elevators leading up, broken down, they are almost bound to be a burden to society, as well as their children.
A little rosier prospects presented to scientists and representatives of the "low-income" and "needy" citizens. According to them, 20 per cent of this category have a chance to improve their social status, but not fewer have real prospects to move into the category of "poor».
The analytical report, Professor Gorshkov drew attention to several key findings based on the study.
So, the poor, constituting almost half of the population is simply not able to take advantage of the current economic system in Russia. Moreover, their social and cultural level has been steadily declining.
"Economic behavior of the poor Russia can be characterized as passive, - said Professor Gorshkov. - Lack of free money making them inaccessible to many forms of economic behavior. Low-income citizens are deprived of the opportunity to use paid social services - quality education, quality health care, health services, etc.
This is an important criterion, which speaks about the deterioration of their quality of life. They have little opportunity to receive a good education, find a good job, to advance in the service ».
Assessing the socio-professional portrait Russian poor, sociologists noted that the nature of employment is not central in determining social status in modern Russia. "44 percent of poor people in Russia - is working - said Professor Gorshkov. - 25 percent are qualified ».
Much more important, according to the researchers, the place of residence. According to them, 70 percent of the poor live in small towns and villages - places with depressed labor market.
Another important component was the structure of leisure. Sociologists have concluded that a gradual but steady degradation of the Russian population. "The structure of leisure noticeably clear shift in priorities in favor of the ordinary component, - said Professor Gorshkov. - It is much less interest than before, manifested in intellectual forms of leisure activities. We have noted a sharp drop in interest in self-education among citizens, although recently one of the three self-leisure preferences of Russians ».
In addition to the negative trends, sociologists noted that "many of the respondents identified themselves as" middle class ", although they are objective indicators among the needy».
Mikhail Gorshkov says such inflated social self-esteem that, in today's society is considered to be "ashamed" to be poor. "Working poor are not willing to plead social outsiders" - says Professor Gorshkov. The study found that the Russian poor have different attitudes and aspirations than the representatives of the poorest sections of the US and Europe.
For our people in the first place are the values of a good job, good relationship with her husband and having children, having good friends and living "is not worse than the others." At the same time, Russian poor are not characterized by the presence of the main aspirations of forming a so-called "American dream": to jump through a social step, to improve their status, that corresponds to a skeptical Russian proverb "from rags to riches».
According to data obtained by sociologists, for our poor people with high levels of social apathy and passivity. "The poor is practically no awareness of their group interests, - said Professor Gorshkov. - This is especially true of young people. They have no understanding of social solidarity and political identity. They live on the principle of "my house - my fortress» ».
Summing up the results of the report, Professor Mikhail Gorshkov concluded that social policy in Russia in the past 15 years, suffered a complete collapse. "If we want to avoid a catastrophe, a social explosion in 15-20 years, the state needs to radically revise the principles of social policy", - said the sociologist.
"New Region - Moscow"