What will it be - the Russian "blue-collar" 2010s?
To answer this question, the correspondent of "PP" visited PTU-87 Moscow city with invigorating called Elektrostal.
This or That
- A Zykina and Gagarin?
- Lord, do they, too?
Director of the vocational school №87 Elektrostal Larisa Stolyarskaya with pleasure star lists the names of those who in the beginning of the glorious path was in the usual "remesluhe." The head sweeps LSDshnaya picture: oily between turning and milling machines, labeled inventory numbers, the Volga River flows with a dazzling smile in suit and diamonds.
Densely populated, according to directories, Elektrostal met seclusion of a weekday morning. By inertia, I decided that everything in earnings in Moscow: an hour or so on the train - and you are in the nature reserve of the highest salaries in the country. But the first session of communication with local residents did not leave the capital's snobbery on my stone unturned: unlike many suburban cities in Elektrostal work there, and a lot of it. It employs three large industrial enterprises. Plant "Electrostal" - steelmaking, EZTM - heavy engineering, "Elemashzavod" - nuclear. On these three pillars, and everything is kept.
The city itself is divided into two parts by rail. According to the undertaken nowhere tradition, they are referred to as follows: That this one. And in this case, pronouns, like serfs gained value for the immutable proper name. If, for example, caretaker PTU-87 Alexander Ye heard on the phone I asked: "Where is your institution?" Replies, "on the side" - it does not mean that in this moment he is on this. The side - this is, but this - this. Wherever you are located. Why? This is a locally toponymic law. It's like "Ji Shi" - just remember, it's impossible to understand.
"Eighty-seventh" we chose at random, that is literally at random. Plunged the dart of darts, without looking at the list of vocational schools of the Moscow region. Caught in №87. Initial investigation showed that the winner of the draw - not moribund institution, abandoned to capitalism, but not exemplary with interactive whiteboards in classrooms - is in the suburbs and such miracles. School was so, what the majority in the country - ordinary.
Porch pleased with the announcement of who is prepared: electrician, car mechanic, machine operator generalist, welder, carpenter, carpenter, pastry chef, Cashier, dealer foodstuffs, secretary-typist.
With this seemingly modest start in life strong contrast blue spruces that were planted near the facade. So the Kremlin in appearance, it seems: a moment more, and you will meet the President or the Secretary General, God forbid.
Headmistress first thing leads to breakfast. Reports that a vocational school for students in all the food is free. Wash your hands requires. Equally strict - and me and the girls with skis returning from exercises. Breakfast - is but the prelude to dinner. In turn, lunch - at the heart of all local coordinate systems. That reference point in space and time, do not be that, there would not be all that patriarchal uchilishchnogo world order: "Now have breakfast, before lunch will be three hours. Then we descend to look at production workshops, and once in the dining room. Let's go - and we will have to wait on a group lesson sellers Cashier ».
Strictly speaking, for sheer gratuitous supply can accept the word of three letters in your biography. But to my surprise, I learned that peteushniki do not pay for anything at all - even in sports and creative circles. Moreover, studying two or three fields at the same time, more and receive a stipend, as well as extra travel. At first sight - a piece of socialism with a human face, somehow escaped a fantastic way of commercialization. Archaisms, atavism, appendix, call it what you want. But very pretty appendix.
Classes at the school start at 8.05. How to change the factory. So here the patterns of adult life, taught her. Hovering in the spirit of building the real economy tones and invigorates. We are moving down the long, almost ministerial, corridor, occasionally glancing at the door of one or the other workshop: lathes, painted in the color of swamp waves benches as photographs of pupils Makarenko tisochki Black, mallet-rubanochki.
- Old machine park? Yes, old. But we are proud of is the fact that we managed to keep it all in 90 years. And look at what they are able to! - Director incredibly suitable for the job name Stolyarskaya pats on the lathe, friendly and dedicated as a working horse on the rump. That look machine pulled slavering lips grab hostess for earring.
I immediately and wins the location peteushnyh inhabitants, using a casually terms known to a narrow circle devoted to: support, headstock, tool. And when I tell how the practice on Institutskaya plants, including machine, forgetting to take out the key, and it flew just some centimeters from the head, even getting his board.
- This all happens! Only no one talks about it, hide. This is a flagrant violation of safety - Ye Alexander Kozlov, or just Aleksanegorych, head masters of vocational training, with smiles happily as if recognized me long lost distant relative.
The company has not buckets rivet
In accordance with the knurled system invented in Soviet times, when every institution profobra now assigned to the base, "the eighty-seventh" is still attributed to "Elemashzavodu" - the industrial giant of nuclear energy.
Unlike the orphan university students, blue collar future potential employer is interested in the bud. PTUshnik Anyone knows if it will be good to learn and establish itself during practice, a job he secured after the release. As in Japan. Between the plant and colleges have long been established scheme of strong horizontal linkages, which are constantly adjusted, depending on the economic needs of the enterprise.
- Yes, there is always popular, "through" specialty, such as electric and gas welder, machine operator, electrician, mechanic-repairman - said Deputy General Director for Personnel and Social Affairs "Elemashzavoda" Valery Prokopov. - But the company - it is a living organism. Periodically, the need for some specialties increases, in other - is reduced. Depending on this, we do custom college.
- And why do you fool with teenagers, distracting masters harassing material tools? Is not it easier to take more or less trained person on the ad, put it to a mechanism to teach operations.
- Put the mechanism! This is acceptable where tin buckets rivet, and then sold for two pennies. We produce high-tech products, - Valery Prokopov little excited, as any professional who is forced to answer questions dilettante. - That is why we need skilled professionals with strictly defined skills and experience.
- By the way, Valery G., give you college at least one machine with programmed control. And then they are worth, which I practiced a quarter century ago.
- You know, recently we visited the plant Vice President of "Toyota" Mr. Hayashi. And when we began to tell him about his plans for the conversion, as he thoughtfully replied, "Why change the machine, if it provides a given level of precision? We in the "Toyota" is a machine, which for thirty years. And there is nothing ».
- So, it turns out. You invest in the school. But not only that it is "long" money - they still pay off. So more and it is unknown whether the graduate comes exactly to your plant. Is it too risky investment?
- And if you do not invest, then we will stay completely naked. Moreover, they are still to come, are not going anywhere. Such work, as we do, even look. Over the 90 years of its existence, the factory did not deceive anyone, people are always treated like human beings - as befits a patriot of the enterprise Valery Procopius conversation it inspires. - Social package, housing, working conditions. The average salary at us on 2009 38 000. And, for example, the earnings of highly skilled machinists before the crisis reaches 100 thousand rubles a month.
- Why did the youth with such fury bursting into offices?
- Two reasons. First. The plant technician can only be seven years at least. And the ideology of youth is this: I want everything at once. II. Despite the fact that the machine operators belong to the elite of the working class, the status of this specialty is low. So far.
The status of the school is very acute. They tell a story. At the competition of patriotic songs one peteushniki ranked first. The administration schools with invited members of the jury the following conversation takes place. "He on whom you learn?" - "On the carpenter." - "It is necessary, and the person is intelligent. We thought the manager ».
- These things we and our students terrible insult. Razgildyaya Give them with signs of mental retardation. Preferably in headdresses and drunk! - Larisa Stolyarskaya boiled as if it was yesterday. - Some are embarrassed to speak as a result of that study in vocational schools. We are changing this view.
- Well, certainly not like Luzhkov, who has all the Moscow School suddenly became colleges. We build on the examples of successful graduates.
Teachers and masters vying to show off. One boy became a priest in the parish of Noginsk. Another teaches Social Studies, member of the City Council. Plus, how many people opened your business. A Tabushi Stanislav, a graduate of 2005, he studied at the mechanic, he is thrown! I went to the polls, the head of administration Elektrostal self-nominated.
Together with master chefs Lidia Mickle're going to look at a live example to follow in the cafe "Spark". It works as a managing kind of celebrity, "the eighty-seventh" - five-digit krasnodiplomny graduate, Chef German Chuhmanov.
- We have a small town - said Lydia B., famously turning the wheel of his brand new-looking car.
- Wow, a little! 130 thousand people.
- You see, anywhere public toilets in the streets there? - Skillfully parried master. - What does this mean? This means that anyone can run back to the house to pee. So, a small town and do not argue with me.
We drive to the gate of the cafe.
- Gerochka said openly - said Lydia B..
- The child is the same.
Towards a child goes 28-years old, sporty, with a gold chain around his neck, but friendly. In his office on a desk calculator and a large health books. In Moscow, it would be called trendy chef. And here the old fashioned way is called zavproizvodstvom.
- I am already in the 9th class wanted independence - explains his departure in German vocational Chuhmanov. - The parents did not object, "Go, your life." After college he graduated from college in the profile, working at the same time at the factory. Then - the Institute. The result set: hand, technology, management experience. All grow together.
Who has the most to Germany in cafes come to practice the students' eighty-seven. " The vocational school has a tradition: instruct young graduates.
- In my time, few people want to go to these professions. Take my sister. Well, she became an economist. And where to put it is now?
- I want to open your business?
- Of course.
- A Moscow travel?
- There's, like, pay a fine.
- There is also - on the face of German wandering smile of a man whose language is not all that in mind.
Another PTUshnik hero - Alexander Malyavkin. It originally recommended to me: "He has a unique gift of an electrician." Alexander gives the impression of a man who knows his own worth - in the sense that not overstate it, and not dumping. He now works in the office of electric service: putting poles, building transformer stations. In his spare time, unique gift spinning wheels on a pirate FM radio station, which he himself had "muddied": just found the studio and transmitter gathered at the knee. And the twists in the air is not chanson, and hardcore (more to know what it is).
Like "Gerochke" school it was difficult to learn, because it is boring. Searched hobbies side: collecting motorcycles, a disco. He claims that he was released from school with a normal certificate because organized the "music" at the wedding of the director's child.
- I was not the leader of a negative, just, probably, sooner ripe, just I wanted to try the school for me was already as kindergarten: not interested and that's it, - says Alexander. - I think if schools are closed rukastym and talented children will have nowhere to go.
- It turns out, God himself has commanded you to go here. Turgenev was not well read, really?
- No, well, why, and read occasionally sips. Turgenev's not because my soul rocker, rebellious, but Remarque, for example, "Faust" or "Flowers of Evil" Baudelaire - why not read?
Do you morons!
Tatiana Krivenko - just a mother. While her two sons were in 'eighty-seven, "she was the chairman of the parents' committee. Now the brothers continue to be generated in the institutions and their careers in their specialty. She herself - the owner of a small Moscow-based firm engaged in sewing women's clothes. That is, could pay for his sons and a five-year tour in any institution is not the worst. But he did not.
- When Nikita learned that he had to study here, he asked, "Do I - a moron?" - Says the mother. - And I say, "Did I debilka, I, too, started out life with a vocational school." He said: "But this is a" sharaga "Mom!". Me: "This' sharaga" All your life you will feed. What would neither come, you will have a "manual" profession. What hands remember, I have never forget. It's like a bicycle: learned - will go to the death. Mechanical memory. And finished vocational school - Learn where you want ».
Senior Nikita is now the leading specialist in energy companies and dwell on it is going. Alex - a carpenter, he recently fashioned a bed for the garden.
- Do not bed - and a royal bed, - enthusiastically tells Tatiana Krivenko. - Lesch is now working for the company that produces decorative furniture, carved into the huge machine sorts curls beech, this is a very solid wood. I was lucky with him. Oops, you have to knock on wood. Where is the tree?
- Mine too studied here - assents director Stolyarskaya.- While at school they had fours and fives. For her daughter it was a shock - do not go, I say to thy fools. I begin to find out what she wants in high school, she said: "Are you - are going to deprive me of my prom ball gown?" It turned out that it was the only one of its argument.
Generally speaking, when teachers and masters tell us how they raise the status of its institutions, doubt creeps in: and there I got? In addition to professional skills competitions and sporting events - from volleyball to pingpong More dance section, a political union, and even literary and poetry club.
- If a person is constantly saying that he is a fool, that he himself and will feel, and the behavior it is relevant - says psychologist Natalya Ivanova school. - And here them constantly want something, they put serious tasks. Enrolling in college, just six months later they open, are more sensible than their peers in school.
Former school useless, bored galёrkoy, which promised "a three-spot" for the silence in the classroom, where many young men and women begin to consider themselves almost stars. Self-esteem is sometimes rolls over. I can say this: "What you have right to correct my love lyrics is the word." And the lyrics there, frankly, enough to swear, shoes rhyme with walking shoes.
But school officials this little upset - they sought compensation in that direction. It even seemed that the majority considered their institution as a place of rehabilitation of children after school. There is no other justification for their Sway position than a phrase, thrown on the run by one of the former school troechnikov: "Here people are treated as people and not as a mark in the diary».
But despite all the pluses and multiplication signs career, lack of students in vocational schools is still felt. And it's not so much the notorious demographic pit, as in the recent education reform, which introduced a system of schools per capita wages.
- So what?