Sometimes psychologists I was accused of taking ' em bread, reducing complex emotional concepts to simple hormones. Not that that's my goal, my goal is to get some measurable, verifiable values that can be reliable sources of information and not depend on interpretations.
So today I will continue the topic about oxytocin, but I will tell it in the key balance between oxytocin and testosterone.
In the language of psychology, testosterone
is the separation and boundaries, and oxytocin
– mergers and alliances. A healthy balance of these hormones is to maintain healthy selective permeability, as in a living cell: skip inside healthy and prevent the ingestion of harmful and dangerous. And the balance of oxytocin and testosterone are important for healthy functioning of the individual
Of course, this balance, there are significant gender differences, but they later separate post. And while I note what is common among these hormones a lot of men and women. Largely because the floor is not quality, but quantity. Ie you can be a man of 51% and 70%, but to be a man, you can be a woman 60% and 95% to be a woman.
So, the behavior controls the level of hormones, and hormones govern the behavior
. It turns out that oxytocin and testosterone allow us to find optimal reaction to various types of social interactions.
The Yin-Yang of testosterone and oxytocin
As mentioned, testosterone is the separation and boundaries, oxytocin is mergers and alliances. In order for your behavior helped to maintain the body's optimum level of oxytocin and testosterone, you need to make a conscious effort. These two hormones are similar to swing. When one end rises, the other falls. The greater balance will be able to achieve in all areas of their lives, in spite of all these difficulties, the healthier and happier he will be. To achieve this balance difficult.
So, excess oxytocin reduces the level of testosterone different mechanisms and does so quite strongly.
- With the decline in testosterone levels reduced energy, strength passion and intensity of libido.
- Elevated testosterone can suppress oxytocin and vasopressin. Therefore, people with high levels of testosterone are less likely to marry and less capable of maintaining long-term relationships.
Testosterone and oxytocin have opposite effects on the different life processes and situations. Excess testosterone blocks the care and feelings, increases aggression, suppresses the ability to respond to social cues and correlates with psychopathic behavior. Of course, this is not the complete opposite. There are some areas where oxytocin and testosterone act together:
Balance is vital because testosterone and oxytocin complement each other.
- improving mood,
- a protective effect on some body systems.
But this equilibrium will be achieved at various values of the levels of testosterone and oxytocin to different people.
The best example to regulate the production of these complementary hormones, love. If a man follows his natural instincts geared for the testosterone, the whole process takes five minutes. In order to achieve the hormonal balance in your body, the man needs to pay more attention to pre-the game of love, which stimulates the production of oxytocin.
Work to ensure that the behavior contributed to hormonal balance, much more difficult. For example:
- it is not easy to show willingness to cooperate (oxytocin) and at the same time a healthy rivalry (testosterone),
- it is difficult to work together (oxytocin), if you need to do something alone (testosterone);
- it is almost impossible to listen to a person and to feel his feelings (oxytocin), when you urgently need to solve a particular problem (testosterone).
- So, oxytocin helps us to predict the reactions of other people to put yourself mentally in their place.
- And on the other hand is testosterone that is responsible for the aggressive behavior: "That from these people I will stay away. Something they seem to me suspicious."
Hormone balance is always in balance, but constantly changing. For example, the half-life of oxytocin is only three minutes! So, 50% reduced level of testosterone the fans after losing their team, and the fans of the winning team he gets to 100% higher. During ovulation, when the level of testosterone reaches its peak, a woman may show increased aggressiveness and tendency to compete. Best friends become rivals and strive to win male attention.
Unfortunately, testosterone drops sharply in males (but not all, and men of Western civilization!). 1% annually reduced testosterone levels in healthy men and to 80 years it may be 40% of the 25‑year-old man.
The power of testosterone are many aspects of life — courage, success, creativity, sexual activity, etc. — the joy in it without a testosterone clearly diminished. And by reducing the testosterone levels decrease and dopamine levels! I note that in women, the level of dopamine depends more from the oxytocin, not testosterone, and men Vice versa. But it will sort it out later. If hormones are imbalanced, there may be different versions of the imbalance:
Low oxytocin oxytocin NormalHigh oxytocinLowtestosterone
the socially anxious, a hikikomori is Often a family man, but lost his libido and zest for life Cultists, adepts, closed from "hostile" outside world groupNormal testosterone
Lonely man, a lot of time conducting on the job Healthy harmonious personality Healthy and harmonious personality (female) High testosterone
is a Sociopath, the psychopathic personality Healthy and harmonious personality (male) of the Unstable state
(high levels of hormones suppress each other)
Reverse the oxytocin effect has testosterone, which psychopaths have
always promoted – both men and women. Sociopaths
are those 5% of the population who lack the oxytocin receptors necessary to establish and maintain normal social contacts, without external coercion.
Sociopaths often use "oxytocin scheme", which works just fine, many of those who became a victim of psychopaths. Sociopaths "are bombing" us with love; and we don't know that they are lying, this bombardment increases trust and often affects people with reduced testosterone.
But the problems with the oxytocin on the background of reduced testosterone manifest in the form of social phobia
. Under the social phobia realize persistent irrational fear of execution of any public action, or action, followed by the loving of other persons (up to fear of the appearance in a public place).
Men involved in long-term monogamous relationships, the level of testosterone on a twenty-one percent lower than their single comrades. All participants had traditional sexual orientation. This does not mean that loyal to her friends and the representatives of the stronger sex has finally lost manhood. Human behavior is explained not only by fluctuations in the levels of various hormones in the body. And yet men with lower testosterone less aggressive and irritable, they are less likely to rush into risky enterprises and not often die of heart attacks. It is not surprising that married men live longer.
Too much testosterone is harmful. If we translate it into the language of psychology, we can say that men with higher testosterone – stable extroverts,
who tend to prefer not a long-term and short-term goals not only in sex but also in other spheres of life. They are more likely to engage in antisocial acts, take on more risk and have less stable sexual relationship. These properties are manifested at an early age, although largely dependent on social circumstances. High testosterone often correlates with anti-social personality, alcoholism and drug addiction. In one study 10% of men with the highest testosterone were significantly superior to all other anti-social behaviour, including attacks. However, it's not just testosterone, and combined with educational and socio-economic level. Mental properties, which can predict deviant biography, also ambiguous; often deviance is correlated not aggression, and impulsivity. Anyway, in the modern world, men with the highest levels are more likely to be for status, jobs – successful professional career is hardly compatible with the temper and impulsiveness. In contrast, for women high levels of testosterone favorable as making them more assertive and career-oriented, but at the same time more aggressive.
Some areas of life and balance the testosterone-oxytocin
Supports, strengthens families and groups, reduces competition Destroys communication, encourages selfishness and competition , the Empathy
Increases Decreases Cognitive ability
Reduces only enhances social memory Increases memory and cognitive abilities the Loyalty and affection
that Stimulates attachment, reduces the risk of change Inhibits the attachment, helps to change Sex and libido
Reducing libido libido Supports high Trust
Increases the trust up to naivete Lowers trust increases alertness Stress
Reduces stress and anxiety Increases anxiety and hostility Lie
Contributes to the falsity of honesty Contributes to the Overall health
Strengthens health, prolongs life, the Excess increases the risk of several diseases, shortens life Loyalty toTESTOSTERONE.
From unfaithful husbands or those who would like to go to the side, higher levels of testosterone. One gets the impression that these restless spirits are still fighting for the possession of a greater number of partners for sex.
Single men have higher levels of testosterone, since they are the competition for sexual partners and they are deprived of the moral support of the wife or faithful girlfriend, with whom relations have stood the test of time. Stability, a reliable rear and the regular safe sex
are the three factors contributing to the decrease in the level of testosterone in men. Beware of men with overly high levels of this hormone.
According to the results of a study conducted by Mazur, married men whose testosterone level is one standard deviation greater than the norm, divorce is much more common. In their families, divorces, forty-one percent more than men with a normal level of testosterone. They tend to leave home when problems arise in the family. And this probability increases by thirty one percent. The number of adultery is increased by thirty eight percent. OXYTOCIN.
Oxytocin makes men more sensitive to cues and stimuli carrying information important for establishing good relationships (e.g., friendships or sexual) with other people. Most likely, for women it is affected in the same way — after all, other mammals, oxytocin regulates the attachment of females to their children, and in monogamous species — and even to a sex partner. I.e. the higher the level of oxytocin in married, the further he is kept from women
Experiments were conducted in which introduced a certain amount of testosterone men that have led to the growth of selfishness. No more selfish people than teenage boys. Checked:
when a high level of testosterone you can think about yourself. You live with the feeling "I just won the lottery the best car in the world and the best wife in the world, I'm the coolest, the coolest". The OXYTOCIN.
It turned out that the level of compassion, inclination to empathy is in direct correlation with the amount of oxytocin, which is thrown into the blood. Further, we have shown that the more in the blood of oxytocin, the higher the willingness to trust and help strangers.
Cm. loyalty. Faithful men a decrease in testosterone level, but it rapidly drops when a man becomes a father. A sharp decline in testosterone level after birth is observed among fathers in the world, from America to Africa.
In accordance with the results of a study conducted by psychologist Annie story, newly fathers and men, preparing for the joyful event, the level of testosterone is reduced by thirty-three percent. He falls, when a man holding a baby, or even an ordinary doll.
So, when dealing with kids the amount of this hormone in the body decreases. Perhaps in the process of evolution, there were many reasons why devotees of their partners men, especially young dads, the level of testosterone is considerably reduced.
A man with low testosterone is more understanding and sympathy to the family, he's attentive to their children. As a rule, he becomes a reliable and faithful companion. OXYTOCIN.
Women with high levels of oxytocin had a great relationship with a newborn, complete harmony and understanding. In women with a lack of oxytocin had problems with feeding babies, and mutual understanding; they have all been more nervous and tense.
What happens in this situation with their fathers? If a woman releases oxytocin, both the men watching her empathic infected with this and also begins to develop. If between a man and a woman establishes a close empathic relationship, they together produce oxytocin and be a wonderful caring parents.
Memory and cognitive abilitiesTESTOSTERONE.
Testosterone has a huge impact on cognitive function, a finding consistent with other studies. Men with too low or too high testosterone levels show poorer results than subjects with average levels of the hormone. This graph was of an inverted letter U.
The same is true for women! Use spray containing male hormones in the control group for 6 months showed significant improvement in the subjects of memory and cognitive functions. The use of the spray, the level of testosterone in the second group returned to typical for women of childbearing age.
At the beginning and at the end of the study, all women underwent a series of computer tests to check different elements of cognitive activities:
- verbal perception
- visual memory
- the ability to memorize new information.
At baseline, cognitive performances of two groups did not differ. After 26 weeks of the experiment the results of patients who have undergone hormone replacement therapy without testosteronemale spray, almost no different from the start. But women from the second group improved all parameters.
But artificial increase in the level of testosterone can cause serious mental disorders, including depression, psychosis and aggression. Increase (significant) in testosterone in most cases lowers mental ability – IQ.OXYTOCIN.
Some of the functions of learning and memory may be impaired after application of oxytocin. Systemic administration of oxytocin affects the recovery of information during test remembering. In addition, there is a General effect of inhibition of mental activity and reduced motivation.
Of course, oxytocin reduces anxiety levels, but at the same time it weakens the motivation, because motivation requires some level of anxiety. The generosity of theTESTOSTERONE.
The excess or deficiency of testosterone increases the greed. In the process of watching the game we drew attention to the fact that participants with a high level of testosterone least willingly parted with finances, finding sophisticated ways to understate the amount in their favor. The greed of players didn't increase their chances of winning. They just didn't want to share money and subsequently failed to give a rational explanation for their actions.
Interestingly, a sharp decline in testosterone also reduces generosity. In people with low levels of testosterone in the blood can increase qualities such as greed, tendency for hoarding.
Formally speaking, people with low levels of testosterone are the ideal keepers of the money, are the perfect bankers
. In witness whereof: the eunuchs were very wealthy. The idea of hoarding was their major one. In one of skopicki songs explicitly States: "Here we don't get married and marriage did not go, because and rich. Do the same thing and we stop believing your stallions, then life will be easier, be rich, be Holy." OXYTOCIN.
Geneticists have discovered that some variation in the nucleotide sequence of the gene OXTR encoding oxytocin receptor, and directly connected with the tendency of people to do good deeds to the detriment of personal gain. In particular, it was shown that in humans oxytocin increases trust and generosity.
In other experiments it was discovered another surprising effect of administration of oxytocin increase trust. Men who were administered oxytocin were more generous in the "game of confidence".
The moral ofOXYTOCIN.
Oxytocin allows us to feel empathy, and empathy promotes socially acceptable behavior, instill confidence, caring about other people, which in turn allow you to generate they have higher level of oxytocin. TESTOSTERONE.
A high level of testosterone stimulates people to punish others for immoral acts, even to the detriment of themselves.
and the stress associated difficult. Testosterone is called the hormone of winners since its level increases in cases when successfully solved a problem or defeated. The state of euphoria caused by the victory, reduces the level of stress hormones, which automatically increase the production of testosterone.
The idea that the level of aggression in humans correlates with the content in its body testosterone entrenched in medicine in the 1980s and 1990s, when the world was a lot of research on this topic.
So, measurements of testosterone at 600 inmates of us prisons showed that those who had a higher level of this hormone was in prison on the first cast, had more conflict with the prison authorities, and their crimes were violent.
Carried out other studies on this topic. Most of them confirmed: testosterone and aggression are interrelated
. Testosterone levels correlated with aggressiveness even in 9-11-year-old boys. Women have testosterone too, is associated with aggressiveness and hostility.
Elevated levels of testosterone promotes aggression, hostility. But chronic stress gradually reduces the level of testosterone below normal. Men usually find out that they are in a state of chronic stress, only when seriously ill. Stress in men often manifests as hostility and irritability, not only as depression.
Women were seen a direct correlation: the risk appetite is directly correlated with testosterone levels.
That is, regardless of testosterone levels, men behave in risky situations are similar, women are divided into "avanturista" and "demure".OXYTOCIN.
Oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol (stress hormones and activity). Oxytocin secreted by the brain in a relaxed state and induces sleep. It opposes the effects of cortisol, a stress hormone, calms, reduces anxiety and evokes a feeling of peace.
Oxytocin causes feelings of satisfaction, tranquility and security, and reduces anxiety.
Many studies have confirmed the link between the production of oxytocin and human relationships and that the level of hormone increases in the trust relationship and decreases feelings of fear.
Testosterone promotes truthfulness and oxytocin mendacity. Scientists have found that the increase of testosterone levels made men less likely to lie. Evaluating the obtained data, the researchers came to the conclusion that testosterone-treated participants lied less frequently than members of the control group. OXYTOCIN.
Installed in a controlled trial that studies the biological cause of immoral behavior that oxytocin promotes dishonest
. People with a high level of oxytocin is easier to lie for the sake of the interests of the group. A team of scientists found that increased levels of oxytocin in the blood helps to ensure that people can easily lie in the interests of the group, the degree of their integrity remains intact, if we are talking about personal interests.
The credulity ofTESTOSTERONE.
Testosterone reduces the gullibility of naive people. Testosterone increases alertness, attention and caution in the perception of strangers. According to scientists, if you usually associate testosterone with aggressiveness, willingness to take risks, dominate and win, their study says about the other functions of testosterone — adaptive
Testosterone does not act on the incredulous women. But on trusting affected: they ceased to trust everyone indiscriminately. Compared with the placebo group, their credulity was halved.
According to the researchers, their study showed that testosterone, increases alertness trusting people, plays a role in their social adaptation to life in society. To a life where you need to be able not to be deceived. OXYTOCIN.
But oxytocin increases trusting, often to the detriment of the person. Two independent studies have shown that oxytocin can also lead to harmful consequences, because the trust can become excessive. A normal person in the "game of trust" is becoming less generous (gullible) after his confidence was once deceived by a partner. But in men, which dripped into the nose oxytocin, this is not happening: they continue to blindly trust the partner, even after the partner of their "betrayal". Also interesting: Testosterone in a man's life Body chemistry: oxytocin is the hormone of trust
Impact on General healthOXYTOCIN
reduces anxiety levels, improves the condition of the nervous and cardiac systems. In General, people with high levels of oxytocin are living healthier and longer lives
. Why worry about other people and live longer. TESTOSTERONE
increases the frequency of risky behaviour. Such men are more likely to die in a drunken brawl or die from heart attacks and prostate cancer, as well as a number of other diseases related to high levels of testosterone. One study conducted in 1969 among patients of psychiatric hospital in Kansas, showed that castrated men live 14 years longer.published
Author: Andrey Blueskin