Dmitry Lihachev: There are different kinds of untidiness in the language of man

Sloppiness in clothing is first and foremost a disrespect to the people around you, and disrespectful to himself. It is not to be dressed dapper. In nifty clothes there are, perhaps, an exaggerated idea of his own elegance, and for the most part, the buck is on the verge of ridiculous. You have to be dressed clean and neat, in a style that best suits you and depending on age. Sports clothing does not make a man an athlete, if he doesn't do sports.

The "Professor's" hat and a black formal suit impossible on the beach or in the woods mushroom picking.

And how should the language we speak? The prophetic language more than clothing, testifies to the taste of man, of his relation to the world, to himself.

There are different kinds of untidiness in the language of man.

If the person was born and lives away from the city and speaks its dialect, this is no untidiness there. Don't know about others but I like these local dialects if they are strictly designed, like. Like their melodiousness, like local words, and local expressions. Dialects are often an inexhaustible source of wealth of the Russian literary language.

Somehow in conversation with me the writer Fyodor Abramov said, With the Russian North took out the granite for the construction of St. Petersburg and took out the word-the word in the stone blocks of the epics, lamentations, lyrical songs... to "Fix" the language of the epics – translate it into the norms of the Russian literary language, is simply to spoil the epic.

Another thing, if the person has been living in the city, know the norms of the literary language, retains the form and words of his village. This may be because he finds them beautiful and proud of them. I'm not bothered. Even if he okaet and retains its familiar melodiousness.

I see the pride of their homeland, their village. It's not bad, and man is not. It is as beautiful as the now forgotten shirt, but only at the man who wore it since childhood, got used to it. If he's wearing it to flaunt it, to show that he was "truly rural", it is funny and cynical: "Look what I am: I wanted to spit that live in the city. Want to be different from all of you!"

Feel roughness in the language, and feel rude in manners, slovenliness in dress, – prevalence phenomenon, and it mostly indicates the psychological insecurity of man, his weakness, not of strength. The speaker committed a gross joke, a sharp expression, irony, cynicism to suppress the feeling of fear, fear, sometimes just fears.

Rude nicknames of teachers that is weak will students want to show they are not afraid of them. This happens semi-conscious. I'm not saying that this is a sign of bad manners, netintelligence, and sometimes cruelty. But the same rationale underlies any rude, cynical, reckless of ironic expressions in relation to the phenomena of everyday life, which than any hurt the speaker. That roughly speaking, people kind of want to show that they are above the phenomena which actually they are afraid.

The basis of any slangy, cynical expressions and swearing lies the weakness. "Spitting words" people and therefore demonstrate their contempt for their traumatic events in life that disturb, torment, worry that they feel weak, not protected against them.

Really strong and healthy, well-balanced person with no need to speak loudly, will not swear and use slang words. He is confident that his word was weighty.

Our language is an essential part of our General behavior in life. As the man says, and once we can easily judge with whom we are dealing, we can determine the degree of intelligence of the person, the degree of psychological balance, the degree of the possible "inferiority complex" (there is such a sad phenomenon in the psychology of some of the weak, but to explain it now I have the chance – it's a big, special issues).


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To learn good, calm, intelligent speech needs for a long time and attentively by listening, memorizing, observing, reading and studying. But though difficult – is necessary. Our speech is the most important part not only of our conduct (as I said), but our personality, our soul, mind, our ability to resist the influences of the environment, if it is "addictive".published

Dmitry Likhachev, the nineteenth letter, HOW to SPEAK?


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