Sewerage: the ways of its disposal to improve water quality
One use only water for dispersion of industrial and human waste is already outdated practice that has already become obsolete because of the emergence of modern technologies and lack of water. However, it is also widely distributed in most countries in the world.
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The water comes directly to the city, contaminated waste and then flows away from the city in a terrible state. Harmful industrial waste that is discharged into lakes, ponds, or boreholes, are also widely distributed in aquifer systems that do all the water unsuitable for the drinking.
A modern design approach to waste people is the use of a large volume of water to completely wash off directly into the sewer, where they can normally be processed, and can and do not have processed before will be in a city river.
Sanitation plays an important role. The system of "flush and forget" takes the nutrients from the soil. Begins to happen not only the loss of useful substances in agriculture, but a large excess is contributing to the death of a large number of rivers and the emergence of about 405 dead zones in coastal regions of the ocean. This outdated system is completely characterized are the high cost and the huge water consumption, it completely breaks the cycle of nutrients and can be a major source of disease and death. Around the world the terrible sanitary conditions and poor personal hygiene continue to claim the lives of an estimated 2 million children a year – losses that make up 1/3 of the 6 million lives that are driven by hunger and real malnutrition.
S. Narain today confirmed that the systems of neutralization on the basis of wastewater treatment stations is neither environmentally, or financially generally not acceptable for a country like India. She States that the Indian family of 5 that produces 250 litres of faeces per year and use the toilet with flushing water, can contaminate 150 thousand liters of water, when it begins to flush their feces.
In its current form the Sewerage of India is true of the spread of germs. It takes a small amount of contaminated material and apply it so that large volumes of water are completely unsuitable for citizens. With a similar system, according to Narain, "and the river, and the children quickly die."
Well, what a great budget alternative is the composting toilet. This is a conventional toilet without water, no smell which is connected with the installation of a compost and sometimes with a separate installation collect all urine. Collected urine that is the role of fertilizers can easily be transported to the farm. Dry, composting is beginning to turn human waste into humus, which has no strong smell and is about 10 percent of the original volume. Seweragein this case, is generally not required. These settings are required quickly to be released approximately once a year, based on the appearance and size. Dealers from time to time collect the humus and sell it as a Supplement to the ground, so providing the most organic matter and return all the nutrients back into the ground and minimizing the requirement for energy-intensive fertilizers.
This technology quickly reduces water consumption in everyday life in comparison to all flush toilets decreases significantly account for the consumption of water and energy required for pumping and purifying water is mandatory. In addition, technology helps reduce the flow of waste if the food waste will be mixed, eliminates all the problems of sewage and restores the circulation of all the nutrients. Drainage in this case loses much.
Agency for the protection of ecology, the U.S. today leads the list of brands of dry compost toilets approved for use. First appeared in Sweden today, these toilets with great success working in the most diverse conditions, including Swedish multi-storey buildings, private homes, U.S. and Chinese village. For the 2.5 billion people who today needs quick improvement of the conditions of cleanliness, the toilets could really be a great solution.
R. George tells us why the system of "flush and forget" is a real energy guzzler. First, she quickly spends energy to deliver a huge volume of drinking water. Second, it starts to consume a lot of energy to work the mechanism to clear all drains.
Therefore, there are many reasons why toilets are the latest development must become a top priority: this shortage of renewable water, rapid growth of prices for energy, a large increase in carbon dioxide emissions, a large reduction in reserves of phosphates, an increase in the number of filled sinks of the dead ocean waters, increased costs for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, which are caused by the rapid spread of sewage, and the growth of large expenditures on the elimination of wastewater system "flush and forget". As can be seen, the sewage in this case is inappropriate.
Once the toilet is completely separated from system water use, re-use of water for domestic use will be much easier. For large cities, the best step to increase water productivity is the introduction of a system of water treatment with the constant application of the same water. With this system, which quickly simplified if the feces do not will be in waste water, only a small percentage of water is spent for evaporation for any cycle. In the presence of the most currently available technologies is quite possible to re-use the city water for very long, to the greatest extent, thus reducing the need of large cities to small water resources. Drainage is generally not required.
In some places, faced with a strong decrease in the water supply and a large increase in prices, citizens are beginning to re-use their water. Singapore, for example, which acquires the water at a great price in Malaysia is secondary applies the water, thus reducing the volume of its imports. Windhoek, capital of Namibia and the driest place on the continent, always returns to the circulation water used as drinking water. In suffering from the water shortage, California vlozil $481 million treatment system, which was launched 6 years ago, for recycling waste water to the most pure water is used to replenish the local aquifer reserves. Los Angeles is planning to do the same. To the greatest number of cities secondary water application is the real condition of survival.
Private industry, faced with shortage of water today, moving away from the practice of using water for the dispersion of excrement. Many firms divide the streams of effluent, processing all the threads individually special chemicals, preparing the water for secondary use, and Sewerage do not need them for this.
P. Gleick reports: "Many industries, such as industrial laundries, pulp and paper, Metalworking, begin quickly to develop a water circulation system in an enclosed space where absolutely everything is secondary waste water used within the system, and requires only small volumes of pure water for accurate filling of liquid, which is included in the product or spent by my evaporation". Industry changes much faster than the city, but they have developed technology can be used in the secondary use of city water.
At the household level can easily reduce water consumption method using the water-saving shower heads, dishwashers, flushing toilets and washing machines. Many States adopt standards for water conservation and the coding for household appliances, for example, the energy saving. When the price of water will rise strongly, and this is sure to happen, investments in composting toilets and vodoohranoy home appliances will be the most profitable for owners of private houses.
2 home appliances – toilets and soul together you need more than half of the drinking water. While simple flush toilet uses 6 gallons to flush. The dual-flush toilets use only 1 gallon for flushing waste liquid and 1.6 gallons for flushing solid most.
The transition from spending most of the shower head in 5 gallons for 60 s to 2.5 gallons for 60 will reduce the water consumption in 2 times.
The current economy with the elimination of waste in the water is unacceptable. Too many on our planet, households, factories, and feedlots for cattle that is easy to take and wash away all waste. To do so just mindlessly from an environmental point of view. This approach belonged to the time when there were much less people and much lower economic activity.