Our modern world is teeming with different techniques and unusual gadgets. The Internet, satellite navigation, mobile phones and thousands of other amazing technologies around us. While the vast majority of all modern high technologies have come into our lives from the military. Because this area is characterized by the fact that it should always be a step or two ahead of the enemy. This means that better minds primarily trying for the benefit of the army, and then some projects are developed and move into the real world. Today we offer to remember some of the "former military" technology that we use almost every day.
Every day thousands of users around the world connect to the Internet. No joke, but the idea of creating a global network was born in 1957. The reason was the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite. This was the period of the cold war, why the United States has logically decided that the country needs reliable data exchange system in case of war. To develop such a network has offered the notorious Agency for defense advanced research projects USA (DARPA). To create it instructed the University of California at Los Angeles, Stanford research center, University of Utah and University of California at Santa Barbara.
The network was called the ARPANET then and 1969, she United all 4 Institute. This year is considered the birthday of the Internet. After 69-year network started grow very quickly and more and more scientists and universities began to connect to the network. By 1971, created the first program for sending e-mail, and it immediately became very popular. The international network was only in 1973, when after a transatlantic telephone cable was connected to the UK and Norway.
Then the "web" had many stages of development. These include the creation of domain names and IRC channels, and the rivalry with the ARPANET NFSNET, the latter eventually passed the title of “the Internet”. Today millions of users are connected to the Internet and daily use of its resources. But if the US didn't want to get ahead of the USSR in the arms race, who knows, could we now just like to watch YouTube or chat with your friends on Facebook.
Another system, which has pushed the launch of our satellite is, of course, the GPS navigation system. The fact that American scientists, headed by R. Kershner watched the signal coming from the Soviet satellite and found that due to the Doppler effect the frequency of the received signal increases with the approach of the satellite and decreases with its distance. The essence of the discovery lay in the fact that if you know your coordinates on the Earth, it becomes possible to measure the position and velocity of the satellite, and Vice versa, knowing the satellite position, it is possible to define own speed and coordinates.
In the Soviet Union from 1964 developed the theory of positioning, which formulated the requirements for building navigation systems by satellites. The first satellite of the global positioning system (hereinafter GLONASS) was launched in 1982. But in “restructuring” the system was abandoned and only the advent of GPS showed that I need my own system.
In 1973, the program was initiated DNSS, later renamed Navstar-GPS, and then GPS. In 1983, he began intensive work on the creation of GPS, and the last of the 24 satellites required for complete coverage of the earth's surface, was launched in 1993, and GPS have taken on arms. It became possible to use it for precision-guided missiles at fixed, and then on the moving objects in the air and on the ground. GPS was developed for military. However, after the Korean Airlines aircraft accidentally intruded into Soviet airspace and was shot down by a fighter, US President Ronald Reagan was allowed to use the system for civilian purposes throughout the world. But there is a caveat: that the system could not be used for military purposes, its accuracy was intentionally reduced.
Even such a thing as "microwave" was developed by the military for the military. American engineer Percy Spencer worked with the magnetron and once remarked that he had in his pocket melted chocolate. The first microwave oven "Radarange" was still done in the company where Spencer worked. It was the size of a man, weighed 340 kg, and the power was 3 kW. Originally this device was necessary for the military to reheat frozen food, for example, in hospitals.
Surprisingly, even such a seemingly familiar thing in life as superglue was originally in service with the military. Invented this glue in 1942, when looking for chemical composition for the production of transparent glass in the scopes. But the substance was very sticky and it was rejected. Further soldiers by using this glue to seal myself up during the Vietnam war
Just an indispensable thing for every self-respecting geek and projects in the style of "honey, I fixed it". This tape was developed in 1942 a division of Johnson & Johnson Corporation for sealing ammunition boxes, so they do not seep water. However, the soldiers quickly realized that the tape can be used for many other purposes, including for the temporary repair of equipment. Today most people, this tape is known in the unchanging grey metallic colour, but originally it had a protective green color.
The world began to change irreversibly (though he did not yet know) in 1945, when it was built the world's first computer ENIAC. Originally created as a device for calculating firing tables for artillery shells, 27-ton "gadget" had not time to catch the war. But instead, he immediately began to be used for calculations in the program of creation of thermonuclear weapons. Despite the proud title of progenitor of computers, ENIAC remained the only one of its kind because of its imperfections similar computers no longer created.
But not always technology is moving from military life to everyday. Sometimes quite the opposite. A good example is the Oculus Rift — virtual reality headset designed for games. To date, these points have developed numerous games and applications. But in the service of US army they are used to training soldiers to manage combat ships.
This project was named ProjectBlueShark. It is based on not only the simulation with the vehicle console, but integration of the virtual world into the control system. The developers have created a special environment in which man is an observer and has the ability to control true weapons and mechanisms, to calculate the location of the ship, plot a course, and more. It became possible only thanks to the virtual reality helmet and accessory devices control the virtual field.
As you can see, much of what has become for us already habitual things used to be for the benefit of the military. But the army did not hesitate to take civil developments and successfully apply them in teaching and in battle.