The dawn of electric vehicles: XIX century

At the end of the XIX century in the cities of France and England, riding the electric car-taxi, in 1889 Russian engineer has built a two-seater with a range of 1 km. And in the Soviet Union on the US electric-751 with a lifting capacity of fifteen tons in 1948 was carrying mail, but that's another story. Below is a brief history of electric vehicles of the last century.

The term electric vehicle refers to a vehicle, which drive wheels for use electric energy obtained from the chemical current source.

O. A. Stavrov


The first internal combustion engine suitable for use, designed a French inventor, Belgian-born étienne Lenoir in 1860. The power of this engine was a 12 horsepower, and he worked for the mixture of air and illuminating gas with an electric spark ignition. Electric motor appeared early in 1841 they were equipped with trolley. Even earlier, in 1828, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik used the motor for a tiny similar to a skateboard, a car.


In 1888, the USA were presented three-wheeled vehicle. Ten lead-acid battery production Electrical Accumulator Company weighed about forty pounds. Maximum design speed was eight miles per hour. Motor power — 0.5 HP. It was, rather, a three-wheeled electric bike.

Lead battery invented in 1859-1860 years Gaston Plante, in 1878 its design was improved by Camille Faure. Today these batteries are used in automotive or motorcycles as starter batteries.


Thomas Perker was responsible for the electrification of the London underground. He also designed and built this electric car in 1884. In addition, he has developed a battery for your vehicle.


In 1889 appeared the first Russian two-seater. It was created by engineer Ippolit Romanov. This front wheel drive vehicle the passengers were located in front, and the driver was back on the chair above them. Located in a compartment behind the cabin batteries were lighter counterparts, which reduced the car's weight up to 720 kg. of then Popular French "Jeanty" weighed 1,440 kg. Maximum speed was 35 km/h and a power reserve of just over 1 kilometer. At 1800 rpm each engine is given the power to 4.4 kW, which is equivalent 5,984 horsepower.



The first electromobile in Germany was built by the engineer Andreas Floc in 1888. In this photo — one of the German vehicles on electric traction in 1904.


The first land speed record electric car delivered in France on 18 December 1898 at car Jentaud, "charged" alkaline batteries. Speed was 62.792 km/h After 4 months the record's been broken by electromobiles Le Jamais Contende — this time the speed has exceeded one hundred and totaled 105.264 km/h.



The power reserve and speed in the late XIX — early XX century electric cars and cars with internal combustion engine was about the same, but charging the batteries was a bit more complicated because you couldn't just plug an electric car into the outlet and wait a few hours, we need the Converter AC to DC. This used working running on AC power motor — it rotates the generator shaft, was connected to the battery. Despite these difficulties, by 1910, in new York, worked seventy thousand electric taxis.

In this photo, taken in 1905, shows two vehicles on electric traction: left — bus right — a taxi. The photo was taken on Broadway in times Square.


History of electric cars-taxi in the United States began with the Electrobat from the company Electric Vehicle Co.


Taxi in 1897.


These taxis charged in a special room.





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