Superstitious unconscious: why we will never get rid take
In the modern world still there are new signs and declared war to current superstitions. Why are we still not got rid of the old Testaments, which professions are more prone to superstition and what role is played by the collective consciousness, "Theories and practices" said the head of the educational-scientific laboratory of folklore studies, Russian state humanitarian University Andrey Moroz. Eighty three million eight hundred four thousand two hundred ninety one
— I have been studying traditional Slavic culture, the breaking of Christianity in the traditional culture, ritual culture, influence of language on the traditional culture and so on. I also have work related to the forms of modern folklore. In particular, lately I have with some of my colleagues engaged in the study of protest folklore that emerged in the winter of 2011-2012. It is necessary to immediately define the terms: the word "superstition" I wouldn't use in a scientific context, because it is not a term and does not denote anything specific. This estimated symbol is not of academic vocabulary and appropriate in the sermon of the priest when he says how to build their religious life. The priest comes from the concept of "correct faith" and that outside of this true faith is. For scientific analysis, it is important how the omens, beliefs, rites, and not how they can be characterized from different points of view. On the other hand, superstitions can be called omen, and ritual, and a belief that does not results in some action, and so on. Therefore, the word "superstition", I would immediately rejected. As for will, Yes, they are included in the circle of my interests as one aspect that can not exist in isolation and is an integral part of traditional culture in General.
— It turns out that nothing to do with religion of a certain action can be called superstition? And you won't mind if I continue to use the word "superstition" in the conventional sense?
— I must protest against the word "superstition" because it is not only context, but also that it is not necessary anything concrete. We will have with you in advance to negotiate what is called superstition. First, religion is a complex set of ideas based on written texts created in different times for different people, and so they have inconsistencies. Secondly, it is a legend, that is, the same oral tradition, which by its very nature may not be clear, unambiguous and monolithic. Thirdly, there is a point of view of specific Church leaders (not only in the Russian Orthodox Church), which in the framework of their own understanding of all of the above can in different ways to assess standards.
There is no single General line, which answers all the questions at once, there is a body of opinion. For example, the Apostolic rule by which the woman is forbidden to go in male clothes, is poured, usually in the persecution of women in Russian stress in Russian Orthodox churches, if they come in his pants. With the huge number of other Orthodox churches and the vast number of temples within the Russian Orthodox Church quite easily look at it. I'm not saying that the pants have long ceased to be men's clothing. It can be called a superstition, but you can call adherence to the Apostolic rule. Both to some extent will be true.
— Then it becomes indistinguishable the line between superstition and omen.
— Luck is a very narrow thing. We can talk about it as a genre of folklore, because luck exists as an idea, decorated in verbal expression with a more or less stable form: if X happens, then Y happens, or more simply: if X, then Y. All the signs about how it works.
Superstition, in a certain context you can call any human action. For example, you come home from the street and wash their hands. You're going to be motivated by the fact that you took the subway to the railing and lifted the fallen purse from the ground, but I can tell you that it's a superstition. And if I'm wrong? And there is no clear answer.
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— For example, spilled salt or fallen on the floor, a fork — what is it?
— It is just luck. With a fork, it is clear how the logic of signs — if the plug fell off the table, there'll come a man. Salt is more complicated, because possible different interpretation. Sign reads: scattered salt — to quarrel. But it can be formulated differently — it is impossible to spill salt, to avoid quarrels, so you should be careful at the table. It will be a ban — you can not perform some actions in order to avoid something more unpleasant.
— And, for example, a black cat that crosses the street?
— What do you think? Any sign can give rise to prohibition, which in turn entails a certain set of beliefs and actions. The cat crossed the road, and you need to go. For this there is a certain requirement, how should I do to misfortune you gone. This, of course, luck. For those who don't believe in it, — this is superstition. For those who believe, — this is not a superstition, but is a fact.
— How are your signs? Is it possible in the modern world the emergence of new superstitions, omens, and what is driving their emergence?
— Yes, it happens regularly, and behind this psychology. The person acts not as an individual, but as part of a team. Mention such things as signs, we always mean a collective or mass consciousness.
Will not happen in the same person. More precisely, there are, but we about it do not really know. A particular person can believe in a million things, about which he never speaks. Suppose someone never leaves the house, not having buttoned the overcoat round on the stairs, because if he get it at home, it will happen some kind of trouble on the road. For some it may be luck, but it is a fact of collective consciousness.
So we are talking about collective things: at some point some "rule" begins to regulate the behavior of the joint in any manner of people. It can be anything: a professional activity, place of work or residence, age, gender, social status and so on. It is important that these people have something in common that unites them and allows you to create a certain cultural environment, which is the spread of a belief, of omens, of the prohibition of the rite. Craving of humanity for the delegation of certain ideas, functions and roles of superhuman strength, attempt to explain the coincidence logic or find in random logic is almost universal trait of our consciousness. It is absolutely ineradicable and is not associated with the state of scientific and technical progress and knowledge about the structure of the universe. Always in the corners of consciousness is not conscious on my part the idea of the existence of the supernatural. In addition, I repeat, in the minds of most people, this language, but there is some almost biological, a subconscious feeling. Actually, this mechanism arranged all the traditional culture and its new forms. That is, if everyone does that, then the way to do it for me. Or I do it because it is doing everything.
From popular contemporary will include the following: from the modern to the following: first, student rite of catching freebies on the eve of the exam. It is necessary to open the record book, lean out the window and call: "Freebie, come back." Then close and put under your pillow. It arose, I think, in 1970-80-ies.
Secondly, the monument to Sherlock Holmes lovers tube, to smoke, to sit beside Holmes. It should contribute to the development of the mind. The idea seemed to be planted actor Livanov at the opening of the monument. And recently appeared the monument to the dog killed in the metro station Mendeleevskaya. To him, bring flowers and write, touch, caress, make wishes.
Collective consciousness determines which signs are still relevant, and which are fading?
— Not quite. Every single factor could easily lose relevance, to yield, to disappear, and so on. For example, the idea that determine the ploughing of land should be sitting bare ass on the ground and feeling her warmth. In origin, it is not associated with temperature sensation, but with some eroticism inherent in the farming culture, is like a symbolic fertilization of the earth. But then the ritual takes on a new explanation — you need to feel the warmth of the earth, but then disappears along with the changing forms of agriculture. It affected primarily the socialization of the earth, if we are talking about Soviet tradition, and mechanization, which abolished the old agricultural rituals. We now have to determine whether the land or not, because now the groundsman will say, so be it. But in General, the phenomenon of belief, superstition, ritual and so on — they do not disappear.
— Is it possible to typologisierung signs?
Well, first, as we have already said, the environment in which they exist. Second, there are some ritualisierungen forms of behavior as "RUB the monument." For example, in 1930-e years there was a tradition to RUB the nose of the dog at the station "revolution Square", and now every second passing by, mechanically touches the nose or legs of the dog. Someone does it consciously, others-unconsciously. It is ineradicable thing.
— And is there a connection between superstition and religion? Is there a reason for warnings against superstition?
— Every religion has its own more or less complex system, and neither one of them can be called a superstition for a number of reasons. It's always the most complicated philosophical and theological system developed by extremely educated and wise people of his time. To a significant extent, religion is opposed to superstition, and the word "superstition" occurs in a religious context.
Any individual action or belief associated with a particular religion may be superstition, but it is more dependent on its carriers. For example, to put in Church a candle. From the ecclesiastical point of view, this is a symbolic action, which was not based on any expectations of benefits, and it is a simulated sacrifice to God. By itself, the candle is a beautiful and elegant Convention. But a man comes to Church twice a year, nakupit candles and puts them in each icon, thus making up for the lack of religious communication. From the point of view of the Christian Church is a superstition. If we do not delve into the religious system, not trying to understand the meaning of what is happening, and just repeat conditionally required a religion of action, whether the sign of the cross, Sabbath observance, circumcision, prayer and so forth, it will be superstition.
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— So, between religion and superstition there is always interpenetration: some religious elements become a superstition, but a superstition, on the contrary, become part of religion?
— Yes, both exist. As for the religious elements of culture that are beginning to be interpreted and understood in a completely new way and in a different context, is often. During a christening the person cut out four strands of hair criss-cross, slam into wax and cast into the hot water. And then comes folklore interpretation: looking drown hair or not. If you drown, the child will not live long, and if they float, then all will be well. Because religion does not exist in a vacuum, very often Church tradition starting to take the non-religious that is the ineradicable form of human behavior and the fact of human consciousness, trying to give it new meaning or its proper shape. For example, birch branches, which are brought into the Orthodox Church on the Trinity, have, on the one hand, some parallel in Judaism, and the other is based on some traditional ceremonies.
— Why is this happening?
— There are things that are very in tune with each other, and therefore, they easily penetrate from popular culture in the Church. For example, the veneration of sources — the phenomenon is extremely ancient and common to almost every religion. For example, in Judaism ablution in running water plays a significant role. Accordingly, in Judaism it comes to Christianity. Simultaneously, there is a national reverence for the sources associated with specific events or expectations. These things are very easy to converge, the waters are made Holy, are being erected to some fact of religious experience or history. The feast day of the Nativity of Christ is associated with the winter solstice and this was set deliberately with the purpose of ousting one of the holiday to others.
— Signs can make or replace a social function? Whether they are the regulators of behavior?
— The most obvious feature is a ban, but there are signs that justify some further expectations. Suppose if Easter will be a Sunny and warm day, all the big holidays in the year are warm. From this nothing follows. Often calendar signs look very strange. For example, on the day of St. Simeon the Stylite (September 1 old style), the flies disappear. This is a sign: it is the day of St. Simeon Stylites — flies should disappear, but it is not always the case. Such signs do not so much have an impact on surrounding life as they serve the mnemonic rules. Such signs serve to systematize the notion of time.
— And as mechanisms of power, you can use these practices?
— Usually not used in any way to influence one group of people to another. If there is a law or a fact relevant to a certain number of people, they form one group within which this law exists. The most obvious are the religious orders. For example, a woman comes to Church in pants. We perceive it as his, because she came to the temple, though, and doesn't know the basic rules. To do: to expel with shame, to ask you to wear a skirt and not to offend our religious feelings or just don't pay attention to it, because for us it is not a criterion.
— What professions are most prone to superstitions and omens?
— First of all it professions associated with high risk: firefighters, pilots, miners and so on. The second reason in a professional environment, you may see signs — it's a closed group. The more activity is associated with isolation, often in socially — the more it contributes to the existence within the team of some traditions.
— Why, then, actors are very superstitious?
I don't know how much they are superstitious, but the existence of the will and beliefs due to the fact that it is a completely closed environment. When the actors come on stage, people in the audience — "they", and "we". The world of theatre and film is another, alternative life. And the fear to portray on stage the deceased mostly associated with the fear of death. The image of the deceased is a very traditional thing, because death is one of the most mysterious phenomena of the human, and no one can know for certain that there will be. Hence, the increased attention to death. It can be implemented in different ways: in some cases, in the traditional culture of the dead depict specifically. Death, perhaps, there is more than just superstition.