Tatiana Chernigovskaya: Language is created for thinking

From the lecture of Tatyana Chernihiv

— The knowledge that now has the science of genetics and neurophysiology can be applied in business, in education, in medicine, in the preparation of the elites, etc.

— Erwin Schroedinger, Nobel laureate in physics, wrote in 1944 "What is life from the point of view of physics." Its basic idea — we must strive for a United, all-encompassing knowledge. The concept of "University" as a time of idea of unification. When every kind of knowledge deals with only one narrow, that's absurd. Science in this narrow version has ended. When a bird flies over the ocean, it was whole, even if some are studying feathers, others claws, the bird is still intact. Dividing the bird not understand. Once we divide the calf to the steak, we lose a calf. Age division and the calculations ended, these types of narrow activities will replace artificial intelligence. That can no supercomputer is opening.

We are in the field a multidisciplinary and convergent (that is, when there is penetration of the different knowledge each other). We are not simply "Homo sapiens", we are "Homo cogitos" and "Homo loquens" (that is, creatures talking). You have many different languages: for example, mathematics (special tool thinking), body language (dance, sports), music (the most difficult and incomprehensible. It's just waves that strike the eardrum. That is a purely physical action. Then all these waves are coming into the brain and become the music. From the fact that the same wave gets to the mosquito, they music will not. The question then arises, where is the music? It is in the Universe? We have it in the brain?).

— Me often comes to mind, although I have no answer and we have no data to answer it: "why are so many invested?" We have a huge number of some reserves in the brain is. In the genes a lot of genetic material that is not used. Although it may be we don't know how to catch. And possibly — in dormant genes. Why so much given to us?

One of the best linguists of the land of Nome Chomsky takes a very tough stance: "Language for communication". And for what? "For thinking". Because of communication the language is bad. It has many meanings and depends on a huge number of factors: who said, who said, in what respects they are, what they both did, they had a fight this morning or not. And even those who are not long time, but is their books that affect us today. The interpretation of these books depends on what I said. If during the day the TV will show "Swan lake", the older generation will care. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is absolutely not guilty of this, the swans are as black and white as they danced, and dance, irrelevant to what is happening are not. It turns out that the event acquires its meaning, not connected with ballet. As said Marina Tsvetaeva: "Reader — co-author". There are no separate works. The question arises. Information generally where: in the mind, between people, everyone has their own? That is "Homo loquens" he "loquens" bad. A good system of communication is Morse code. So Chomsky says: language is not created for this, communication is a byproduct. Language is created for thinking.

— The contribution of genetics giant: what is brain, what is language, how are things with ethnic groups. Ethnicity — specific thing, it pulls a gene. Despite political correctness, which is now so fond of the modern world, ethnicity is not going away. Today it is possible to study the gene up to the Sumerians. And this is very important information. Depend on our sickness, our preferences for tastes, smells, mindset, psycho-type. Who's related to who, what languages are related to each other. 10 years ago such information was not obtained.

-Consciousness. It is believed to have only people. Again, how do we know. I'm always reminded of his dead cat of an unearthly beauty. He kept silent, watched, blue eyes, and was silent. It follows from this that? Nothing. What he doesn't want to talk. Maybe he's a natural Zen-Buddhist? Own life he goes. He even promised me nothing. Not only he, but all of us promised nothing. All these millions of different species that inhabit the planet that are not worse than we are. Or better, they, at least, do not spoil it. And what is consciousness? If we are talking about true reflection, i.e. the ability to understand their actions, make informed decisions, then 99.9% of people do not.

Most people do not suspect what you can see like on the side that may be I'm wrong, maybe I'm not the decision was made. Yes, actually most people don't think about it... We don't know what consciousness is, and not have to fool people for a ride: "I found the consciousness in a certain lobe of the brain."

Never meet someone who doesn't know. Well I do not know and do not know. But some companies have information of different varieties. So they are responsible. We understand, given the possibility of genetic analysis and manipulation of genes that can be arranged. Those who know, and nothing will control it, then they are scoundrels. As now sold by the set of "young chemist", imagine, sold by the set of "young geneticist": "Here's a complete set, make a non-existent animal... to the environment". This should not be allowed.

How the energy of knowledge about the brain can affect! The brain works with incredible efficiency. The best of brains in his best moments uses the energy equal to a 30 watt bulb. 30 watt bulb who saw her? Except that in the fridge. With that, if done, it is difficult to imagine a supercomputer is the same as the human brain, it will use the work energy of the city. That is, if we knew how the brain copes with such tasks, using such a small energy, we would have all changed.

When people ask me what my specialty is. This linguistics is anthropology in a wide sense (both physical and cultural), is a neuroscience, artificial intelligence, of course, psychology and of course philosophy. The one which makes us shiver threw when I was at University because I thought it was guff. Now I'm completely different on the philosophy of look.

Serious analytical philosophers epistemology is a necessary component. Because people who have trained brains, can properly raise the question.

We are posing the wrong questions first, then spend wild money, then get the results and interpret them incorrectly. That is, the situation is absurd. Need a question properly put! What are you looking for?! I remember when I started with the Institute of brain work, I came in and said, "Let's see where in the brain the verbs". The Director of the brain Institute looked at me longingly, he is a physicist, a biologist that is for a long time, but originally a physicist, and says, "You really have to ask?" "Seriously, I read books, articles". "You want to say that I think that in the brain there are places that are verbs, nouns, tables and chairs?" "Of course! Now I have a stack of articles from the world's best magazines!" Now I remember it as a joke. What are verbs, what are you? How are you going to separate memory and, moreover, different types of memory associations that are not by order of the go... So when you put the question, first understand, the answer to this question possible? Now, looking from their point of view, I would say that this is the biggest problem, which is the science in this area — wrong questions.

Hope to get global responses within a single neuron, or even parts of this neuron. We seriously believe that we will find the answer from the fact that the brain Nachinaem as cabbage by the imager? What? And then what, what to do?!

All of our evolution — the path from the simplest organisms to the most complex. And this, of course, the human brain. And we owe him all the achievements of human civilization and he, moreover, is changing. He changes from any impact. We are beings that operate on symbolic systems. We live in the real world, but in the world of ideas, which is more important than the chairs and beets. We live in a world of information books. I'm Natasha Rostova hate! But it does not have and never did, that's what I'm getting at. Why am I so worried about Natasha when she is a collection of letters? It was not, Natasha, why so much suffering?! For us, the people, the second reality, which is a music, poetry, philosophy, no matter of what rank, for us it has the same if not more value. This is what distinguishes us from other living beings that inhabit this planet.

— Where did our language? Many believe that language is the words. But how important words, so that from which they are built. What is the phoneme from which these words turned out. And what happens when those words start to be combined with each other to form phrases, texts, books, etc.

— In a gene there are 49 sites that have suddenly become very fast to evolve. I generally affects the development ability. In that part of the genome, which provides our main skills, there the development went in the 70 (!) times faster than others. When I read it, decided that it was a typo. I would say that the Creator is sick and he decided to tweak the story.

— We were taught that acquired characteristics are not inherited. For example, if I learned Japanese, it does not follow that my children and grandchildren will know the Japanese language. But the question nevertheless stands.

For example, if I'm really smart and will start to have children, then these children will be better than if I gave birth before I became so smart. We know that how a person lives may influence its genetics. This troubling and good news.

— Here you can see what books are written of physics — "From molecule to metaphor". I about how far it has gone in convergence.

— Conversations go that's the key: that in the brain of separate addresses for different things, verbs of motion — here, the verbs of thinking — here, etc, here's the second properly, a network, a network of networks hypernetwork of hypercity etc. All of these supercomputers is a joke in comparison with what is a human brain. The question should be not where the fork — spoon in the brain, not ' to look for, and how it can function. And then we will be able to understand how society functions and what to do with medicine, how to rehabilitate patients after a stroke education to arrange. So if we teach children? For example, children why teach the binomial theorem? I have in my entire life with the binomial theorem are never met. If you meet, then a finger poke and say, "OK, Google"... Before there was no Internet, but books were. Why should it be taught? If I would say to train your memory, OK everything, I agree. But it may be better than Shakespeare or Greek poetry? Why a meaningless thing to teach? We children them pumped.

I need to know what year Napoleon married Josephine? No, it doesn't matter. It is important that people understand what is happening on this planet. Everything else Google already knows. I have people who know what Google knows, do not need professional, because Google is already there. I need someone come to mind unusual thing. You know, open is error.

If we offer to take the exam the following people: Mozart, Beethoven, slacker losers Pushkin, as well as take chemist Mendeleev (the " d " in chemistry, remember?), Einstein, Dirac, schrödinger, etc. so they all fill up. We say: "Two of you Niels Bohr". He will say: "Deuce-deuce, but a Nobel prize is waiting for me". And for this "wrong answer"! So what we want? Discoveries or the army of fools who have learned the binomial theorem? Of course, there is a major danger. I know her. If everyone knew everything in a little bit, there is a risk that we will start to produce Amateurs. What to do with it, need to think.

— On the right and left hemispheres. It has not been canceled, but no hard division no. There are different artists, there are different mathematics. Geometry is, of course, right hemisphere thing. And algorithms - left-hemisphere. You know what Einstein said? I specifically take it Einstein, not of the poet: "Intuition is a sacred gift!" It says a physicist. "And rational thinking — humble servant." And about him the other people were saying, "Einstein was much more an artist in his physics than in playing the violin." Creativity is elsewhere — not in the type of specialty, not exercise, and in mindset.

(The answer to the question about the origin of man) I Have no version of the origin of man. I admit all possible versions, including act of Creation. Do not see any obstacles. When Gagarin flew around the Earth, asked him: "God saw?". "Well, there is no God, because his Gagarin did not see". And He was supposed to appear? He had to sit on the cloud, Eva mold? What He had to do this? You not only that the molecules are all falling apart, what do you want? That generally operates this universe, you need more miracles? And evolution in General who run it? The key is to incorporate, and then let them develop. Read Darwin, each third line contains the Creator with a capital letter. He has a theological education, no one has forgotten? Nowhere in Darwin does not say that man evolved from apes, anywhere. And, of course, we all have common ancestors — we have no unrelated on this planet.

— There are no two people who think alike. As said academician Shcherba why you need to learn foreign languages. Not for the fact that when you come to Paris to be able to say: "Give me bread". And because you thus find yourself in another world: another language is another world. I have not met the Sumerians, I admit. Somehow they did not come across on the street. Meanwhile, if you take and read the translation of the Sumerian text, the goose bumps. These people are gone, this civilization is already generally no, but you can imagine how looked the world. Each language represents a different world.

— The brain has to work hard. The more the brain is busy with his business, that is, hard thinking, the better. In particular, it changes physically. The quality of neurons is getting better, structure better, they are stronger, better formed. To develop the brain, we need to read difficult books. The harder the better. The level of difficulty for everybody. If the old lady sitting on the bench and solves a crossword puzzle, and for her it's a tough job — let him decide.

— And finally, the answer to the question: "do you Know what coaching is?" "Yeah, I know, even have friends". "Is there a benefit?" "I think so. Although I don't like the word".

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