Modern man in its development is not far removed from monkeys, life define it the same laws that tens of millions of years ago, and the future does not promise anything good to mankind. The evolutionist, paleoneurology, doctor of biological Sciences, Professor, head of laboratory of nervous system development, Institute of human morphology Russian Academy of medical Sciences Sergey V. Saveliev tells about the evolution and degradation of the brain and shares his forecasts for the development of humanity.
Ninety seven million nine hundred thirty thousand seven hundred seventeen
How and why developed the human brain?
The brain never evolved to become a well-to think, to create immortal works, solve math problems or to send people into space. It was developed to quickly and effectively address the biological problem. We have bad nails, slow feet, no wings, disgusting anatomy — we walk on two legs like dinosaurs. And our only advantage over other species — the size of the brain.
The brain is formed under the action of the biological laws for a very long time. Our ancestors, like all primates, lived 50 million years in the trees. Then, 15 million years ago, and these trees came down. According to the official version they without any reason threw a beautiful forest full of food, and went there are roots in the open where they could easily kill the predators. Of course, this is nonsense.
Monkeys from the jungle is not so easy to drive — they can only lure food. So they came to the shores of the lakes, which then in Africa was very much in fish, caviar and eggs, nestling birds there. Overabundance of food rich in protein, the lack of competition for it — is the basis of happiness of our ancestors. This blissful period lasted about 10 million years. What do the primates, when solved the problem of food? Issues of reproduction and dominance.
Began a fierce sexual competition, and our ancestors began to sort out among themselves the relations. Excess food creates social problems — the biological law is still in effect today. While all go to work and earn money, the family is all well. As soon as the work goes one, the others begin to sort things out among themselves.
Arisen at the time it was a tool of sexual competition? And if she's brain growth?
Speech and communication emerged as the basis for joint actions when hunting in the water. But very quickly they began to be used differently- for fraud. In any world, to demonstrate the ability to action is much easier and cheaper than to do something. Just imagine: it comes to the male to the female and says that he caught a huge fish, but suddenly there were evil beasts, took it and ate it.
You have born the image — and the events there were not any. He invented it all, to achieve the result: to conquer the female and to make himself a child. It began to evolve because it doesn't work. It is energetically more favorable. The lie is beneficial everywhere, and all those involved. It helped in the competition for food, for mates, for dominance in the pack. However, it's not such acquisition, which rebuilds or increases the brain. From microcephalics, for example, a smaller brain than a chimpanzee, but they are good at talking.
When does the brain grow?
Ten million years ago at the time of the transition from APE to man there was a system of sotsializatsii and began to operate social selection. Since the group of primates could solve their problems only in a stable situation where no one between nibbles, the most aggressive and the most intelligent become either destroyed or cast out from the pack. As a result of this hidden form of selection was evolution.
On the one hand, it was a preservative or stabilizing selection: by eliminating biological individuality create a group with certain average properties. On the other hand, the exiled individuals have migrated, have adapted to the new environment, bred and again expelled anti-social and most intelligent. New migration path. And if we trace the history of humanity, we can see that at each location the brain a little increased and over millions of years has reached its maximum size — 1650 g, which is almost 300 grams more than the modern man.
As the social selection within the group influenced the formation of the brain?
A million years ago, the social structure of society due to fierce domestic selection developed frontal region of the brain. In humans, this area is huge: the other mammals it is much less relative to the whole brain. Formed frontal area not to think, and to force the individual to share food with a neighbor.
No animal is able to share food, because food is a source of energy. And people who are not sharing food, in a social group just destroyed. By the way, we all know of the example, the frontal region is anorexia. A man who, to lose weight, stops eating, then it is impossible to get — and in the end he dies. But, it turns out, it can be cured: if you cut it the frontal area, it will start there. This method was practiced until the 1960-ies until banned psychosurgery.
When and why human brains started to shrink?
The brain grew until it was where to migrate and yet people had to solve a biological problem. When humanity is faced with social problems, the brain began to lose weight. This process began about 100 thousand years ago. About 30 thousand years ago it led to the destruction of the Neanderthals. They were smarter, stronger than our ancestors the CRO-magnons; they creatively solved all the problems, invent tools, means of making fire, etc.
But due to the fact that they lived in small populations, social selection was less pronounced. And the CRO-magnons enjoyed the benefits of large populations. As a result of prolonged negative social selection of their group were well integrated. Due to the population unity of the CRO-magnons annihilated the Neanderthals. Against the mass of mediocrity even the most powerful geniuses can't do anything. In the end we are left on this planet alone.
As this story illustrates, for the socialization of a large brain is not needed. Well socialized blunt individual integrates into any community is much better than the Maverick. During the evolution of the personal talents and characteristics were sacrificed for biological benefits: food, reproduction, dominance. That's the kind of price paid by humanity!
That is, the weight of the brain speaks about the abilities of the person?
Yes, his potential. In 75% of cases in humans, with large brains, four times more likely to be a genius or have talent than a person with a small brain. It is a fact, a statistic.
Why mental work effort? It is also the result of the reduction of the brain?
The brain is a strange structure.
On the one hand, it allows us to think, future is not. After all, how does it work? In a relaxed state when you are resting, say, watching TV, the brain consumes 9% of the total energy of the body. But if you start to think, the flow rate increases to 25%. But we have 65 million years of the struggle for food, for energy. The brain got used to it and doesn't believe that tomorrow he will have what to eat.
Therefore he categorically does not want to think. (For the same reason, by the way, people tend to overeat.) In the course of evolution even had a special protective mechanisms: when you begin to work intensively, to think, you immediately are produced with special compounds that cause irritation: do you want to eat, to the bathroom, you have a million things to do — anything just to stop thinking.
But if you lie down on the sofa with a delicious meal, the body is overjoyed. Immediately begins to produce serotonin, it is only the position of one molecule different from LSD. Or dopamine, or endorphins — hormones of happiness. The intellectual costs so are not supported, and the body is fighting back. The brain is not in order to work all the time, and to solve the problem of energy.
You have any biological problem, have you been involved and has worked hard. And once solved the task immediately fell asleep on the couch. Better to have a huge powerful computer to run it for three minutes, to solve the problem and then disable.
The brain always works as a whole?
No, it is not adapted. When you watch a movie, work the occipital region, when you listen to the music — the temporal. And even changes blood flow to the auditory region, then to visual, then to the motor. So if you want to save the brain intact, not to engage, for example, one exercise.
If you are going to give yourself the intellectual load, and diverse, the blood flow will take place primarily in motor areas, but not in the intellectual, that is associative, and there are early multiple sclerosis. The old lady will be the movable, slender, but with dementia.
Due to this feature of the brain it is difficult for us to do several things at the same time?
Yes, of course, many businesses require increased concentration, and energy costs increase dramatically. Blood flow goes to several areas, increases resistance of the brain: the more you include neurons, the more the brain wants to work.
How to make lazy brain to work?
Make it very difficult. Of course, the brain can promise some delayed results, but biological organisms require only immediate results: until tomorrow because you can not survive. So this method is suitable units. But to trick the brain. For this there are two stages. First — by means of deceptive promises, the second by the so-called offset activity.
Given example. Dog sitting near the table, you the table, on the table — a sandwich. Dog wants to steal a sandwich and realizes that she will be punished. And here she sits-sits in between two lights and suddenly begins furiously scratching behind his ear. It can neither be indifferent nor to react — and chooses the third way.
This is displacement activity — doing business, not directly related to what you really need. Is that driven in the gap between the biological ("want") and social ("should") motivation. The writers of, say, starting to write is not what you need photographers to shoot something not related to the order — and the results are often brilliant. Some call it insight, some inspiration. To reach this state is very difficult.
Can we say that the ability of man lies in his brain?
Yes, and they can neither expand nor increase — only to realize. For example, the artist huge occipital fields every five or six more (by weight, size, number of neurons) than the average person. This determines his abilities. He has more resources for processing, he will see more colors and details, so you will never be able to agree on terms of visual assessment. People with different abilities it is difficult to understand each other. The stronger their abilities, the worse.
How to identify a person's ability?
The psychology of this, unfortunately, can not. And technical means are not yet very developed. However, I'm sure in five to ten years technology will improve, will appear in high-resolution imagers (resolution 25 microns, and should be 4-5 microns), and then using a special algorithm you can sort people by ability and take away geniuses in different fields.
Sounds scary. What is the result?
To ensure that the world will change forever. The best part — thanks to this sort of people will be able to do what they do tend. And it will bring many happiness. Will not have anyone to poison gas er Ah, like in the movie "Dead season" that was all dumb and happy. Another consequence — individual differences override ethnic, and racial problems will disappear. But there will be new ones that humanity has never faced.
Because the geniuses who are taken away by artificial means, radically, and, most importantly, imperceptibly will change the world. In the near future, humanity will have a very short, but very violent race. Who was the first to create a system of sorting, he will rule the world. You understand that, first and foremost, this technology is used not for the benefit of society and for military purposes. It would be horrible. Compared to this, the Second world war seems a game of soldiers.
And the direction in which today is a natural evolutionary process?
Negative social selection, which began 10 million years ago, is valid to this day. Society still cast out not only anti-social elements, but also the smartest. Look at the fate of the great scientists, thinkers, philosophers, few have had a good life.
This is because we, as monkeys, we continue to compete. If among us there is a dominant individual, it must be eliminated immediately — it threatens every person. And since mediocrity is more, any talent needs to be either expelled, or simply destroyed. Therefore, the school honors persecuted, bullied, bullied, and so all his life. And who's left? Mediocrity. But well-socialized.
That is, we still live under the same laws, and that tens of millions of years ago?
Yes, we are the same monkey as before, and live by the same monkey laws as 20 million years ago. Basically all eat, drink, reproduce, and dominate. This is the basis of the structure of humanity. All other laws, the system only mask this phenomenon. A society in which there appear gifted people, she found a way of masking our monkey roots and desires to protect the beginning of the biological from the social.
But today, all the processes in the field of politics, business, etc. — are based on biological laws. Entrepreneurs, for example, seek to save on everything, to gain a competitive advantage and thus increase their dominance. Social laws, moral and ethical attitudes instilled by parents, on the contrary, hamper business, and everyone is trying to get around them to earn more.
Once everything is based on instincts, means to control the people, you have these instincts and appeal?
And all do so. After all, what politicians promise? Every man for woman, each woman man, each man a bottle of vodka. We change the social programs — you'll live better. We will make affordable health care — you save money and health save. We will reduce the taxes you will have more food. It's all biological suggestions related to energy and lifetime.
Where social offers? Almost none of the politicians are not talking about changing the social structure of society, about values. Instead, they say: we'll give you money — you multiply. Or here's another example of reductio ad absurdum of the instinctive behaviors to establish dominance — smart home of bill gates. This house is the master, he enters, and he adjusted the air conditioner, changing humidity, light. The leaves — all adjusted to the demands of less than superior.
That is, in the house, in fact, is a herd of baboons, which his appearance in every room to prove to each other who is more important. And it's called smart house? Yes, this is schizophrenia in the monkey. The apotheosis of a biological outbreak. And it all served as a world of the future. What is the structure of the world of the future?! And look to the tail grow back to knee in that future. All the innovations are aimed at one and the same.
It seems that the prospects of our civilization in regard to intelligence, the rainbow will not name.
If civilization will continue in its present form, which I doubt, our intellectual level will go down hard. It is inevitable. Now the educational qualification is significantly reduced, because there are a great thing — the information environment that allows people to simulate knowledge, and education. For primates this is a very big temptation — this simulation allows you to do nothing and succeed. Despite the fact that intellectual development will be reduced, requirements for the level of social adaptation will rise.
For example, the United Europe. Who was the most successful? Smart? No. Most mobile and socialised, those who are willing to move to other cities and countries and survives well there. Now these people come into power in the management structure. Europe, together, have accelerated the degradation of the intellect. At first the values level out a person's ability to maintain a relationship for a second — all the rest: professionalism, skills. So we are waiting for the intellectual degradation, reducing the size of the brain, partly, perhaps, physical recovery, now promotes a healthy lifestyle.
People may not have high intellectual abilities and developed social skills?
Very rarely. If one thinks about it, looking for solutions, which to him was not in the nature and in society, this excludes a high level of adaptability. And even if society recognizes him as a genius, he is not fit. High socialization, in turn, leaves no at that time. Inventors are not very suitable to forced labour. Because they gain dominance, improve your rating by using the language, not cases.
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Is the woman's brain from the brain of a man?
Women's brains are smaller than the male. The minimum difference in average populations of 30 g maximum 250 g. the reason why it is less? Due to the associative centres, responsible for abstract thinking, they don't really need the woman because her biological problem associated with reproduction. Therefore, women are especially successful in areas related to education, cultural identification, they well maintain, retain, transfer the continuity of the cultural system, museums, libraries. In addition, they achieve excellent results in stable communities, where all the rules are already defined and well known. And, of course, women are geniuses — the brain is very changeable structure.