The brain evolved not in order, that we think well, to create immortal works, solve mathematical problems or to send people into space. h3> The evolutionist, paleoneurology, Sc.D., Professor, Head of the Laboratory of the nervous system of the Institute of Human Morphology RAMS Sergey V. Saveliev talks about the evolution and degradation of the brain and shared his expectations of human development.
How and why the human brain evolved h3>
Modern man in his development is not far from the monkey, his life was determined by the same laws as the tens of millions of years ago, and the future does not promise anything good to mankind. The brain evolved to quickly and effectively solve biological problems. We have bad nails, slow legs, no wings, hideous anatomy - we walk on two legs, like dinosaurs. And our only advantage over other species - the size of the brain.
The brain is formed by the action of biological laws for a long time. Our ancestors, like all primates, lived 50 million years in the trees. Then, 15 million years ago, they came down with the trees and went out on the lake for fish, roe and eggs of birds nesting there. The overabundance of food rich in protein, the lack of competition for it - this is the basis of happiness of our ancestors. This paradise period lasted about 10 million years. What is involved in primates, when solved the problem of food? The propagation and dominance. Began a fierce sexual competition, our ancestors began to find out their relations.
Excess food creates social problems - this biological law is still in effect today. While all go to work and earn money, the family are all well. As soon as one goes to work, the others begin to sort things out among themselves.
It as an instrument of deception h3>
Speech and communication emerged as a basis for joint action in the hunt in the water. But very quickly they began to be used in another way - to deceive. In all the world to demonstrate the ability to act is much easier and more profitable than to do something. Just imagine: the male to the female comes and says that he caught a huge fish, but suddenly there were evil beasts, robbed her and ate. You have born the image - and some events were not any. He invented it in order to achieve a result: to conquer the female and make himself a descendant.
It began to evolve because it does not imply any activity. It is energetically more favorable. Lying profitable everywhere, and all those involved. It helped in the competition for food for the female, with the dominant position in the pack.
Society expels smart h3>
Ten million years ago in the time of transition from ape to man originated the system of socialization and social selection has started to operate. Since the group of primates could solve their problems only in a stable situation when no one among themselves not biting, the most aggressive and the most intelligent steel or destroy or expel from the pack. As a result of this hidden form of selection was evolution. On the one hand, it was a preservative or stabilizing, selection: by eliminating the biological individuality create groups with some averaged properties. On the other hand, they expel individuals migrated to adjust to the new environment, the fruit and then expelled asocial and brightest.
Social selection affects the formation of brain h3>
A million years ago, with little social structure thanks to the fiercest internal selection developed frontal area of the brain. In humans, this area is huge: the rest of mammals is much smaller relative to the entire brain. Formed the frontal area is not to think, and to make the human individual to share food with neighbors. No animal is able to share food, because the food - a source of energy. And people who do not share food, in a social group simply destroyed. By the way, we all know the example of the work the frontal area - is anorexia. The man who, to lose weight, stop eating, then it is impossible to make - and in the end he dies. But it turns out, it can be cured if it cut the frontal region, it will have. This method is practiced until the 1960s until banned psychosurgery.
Against the mass of mediocrity, even geniuses can not do anything h3>
The brain grew until it was to migrate and where people had yet to decide only biological task. When humanity is faced with social problems, the brain began to lose weight. This process began about 100 thousand. Years ago. Approximately 30 thousand. Years ago, this led to the destruction of the Neanderthals.
They were smarter, stronger than our ancestors the Cro-Magnons; they creatively solve all the problems, come up with tools, means of making fire, etc. But due to the fact that they lived in small populations, their social selection was less pronounced. A Cro-Magnon benefited from large populations. As a result, long-term negative social selection of the group were well integrated. Thanks to the unity of the population-Cro-Magnons wiped out the Neanderthals. Against the mass of mediocrity, even the most powerful geniuses can not do anything. In the end, we were left alone on this planet.
As this story shows, for the socialization big brain is not necessary. Well socialized stupid individual is integrated into any community is much better than individualist. During the evolution of the personal talents and peculiarities sacrificed for biological benefits: food, breeding dominance. That is what price paid humanity!
Mental labor is given to us to work h3>
The brain - a strange structure. On the one hand, it allows us to think, on the other - does not allow. After all, how does it work? In a relaxed state, when you are resting, say, watching TV, the brain consumes 9% of the total energy of the body. And if you start to think, the flow rate is increased to 25%. But we have behind 65 million years of the struggle for food, for energy. The brain is used to it and does not believe that tomorrow it will be, what to eat. He therefore categorically does not want to think. (For the same reason, by the way, people tend to overeat.)
In the course of evolution even any special protection mechanisms: when you begin to work intensively to meditate, you immediately produced connections, irritating: you want to eat, use the toilet, you have a million things - anything you like, but would not think . And if you lie down on the sofa with a delicious meal, the body gets excited. Immediately begins to produce serotonin - it is only the position of one molecule different from LSD. Or dopamine or endorphins - the hormones of happiness. Intelligent costs as are not supported, and the body resists it.
The brain is no longer to work all the time, and to solve the problem of energy. Do you have a biological problem, you enable and hard job. And once we solved the problem - immediately turn off and on the sofa. Advantageous to have a huge powerful computer to run it for three minutes, to solve the problem and then turn off.
How to make a lazy brain to work h3>
It makes it very difficult. Of course, the brain can promise some delayed results, but only biological organisms require immediate results: tomorrow because you can not survive. Thus, this method is suitable units. But you can trick the brain. For this there are two reception. The first - with the help of false promises, the second - with the help of so-called displacement activity.
Here is an example. Dog sitting at the table, you are - at the table, on the table - a sandwich. The dog wants to steal a sandwich and understands that it will be punished. And here she sits, sits between two fires, and suddenly starts frantically scratching his ear. It can not remain indifferent or react and choose the third way.
This is offset activity - business activity, not directly related to what you really need. That's what driven into the gap between the biological ("I want") and social ("must") motivation. Writers, for example, start writing is not something that should, photographers - shoot something not related to the order, and the results are often brilliant. Someone calls this insight, some inspiration.
The ability of man laid in his brain h3>
And they can neither expand nor increase - only to realize. For example, the artist's great occipital field - every five or six more (weight, size, number of neurons) than the average person. This determines its ability. He has more resources for processing, it will see more colors and details, so you'll never be able to agree on them with regard to the graphic evaluation. People with different abilities is difficult to understand each other. And the more pronounced their ability, so much the worse.
How to identify a person's ability h3>
The psychology of this, unfortunately, can not. But hardware is not very developed. However, I am sure, in five or ten years, technology will improve, there will be high-resolution tomography (currently resolution - 25 microns and 4-5 microns is necessary), and then using a special algorithm can be sorted according to their abilities and the people selected geniuses in various fields .
This will lead to the fact that the world will change forever. The best part - thanks to a sorting people will be engaged in what they are really prone. Another consequence - individual differences block the ethnic and racial problems disappear. But there will be new - such that humanity has ever faced. Because genius, which will be taken away by artificial means, fundamentally, and most importantly, imperceptibly change the world.
In the near future, humanity will have a very short, but very fierce race. Who will create the first sorting system, he will rule the world. You know, that first of all this technology is used not for the benefit of society, and for military purposes. It will be horrible. By comparison, the World War II will seem a game of soldiers.
The negative social selection operates on this day h3>
Because society still ostracized not only anti-social elements, but also the smartest. Look at the fate of the great scientists, thinkers, philosophers - few have a well-developed life. This is due to the fact that we, as a monkey, continue to compete. If among us there is a dominant individual, it should be immediately eliminated - it also threatens every person. And since more than mediocrity, any talent or be ousted, or simply destroyed. That is why the school standouts persecuted, bullied, bullied - and so all his life. Who is left? Mediocrity. But well socialized.
We are the same monkey, as in the past, and we live by the same laws of monkey that 20 million years ago. Basically all they eat, drink, multiply and dominate. This is the basis of humanity devices. All other laws, the system only mask this phenomenon.
A society in which no-no there are talented people come up with a way to disguise our simian roots and desire to protect the biological beginning of the social. But today, all the processes - in politics, business, etc. - Are based on biological laws. Entrepreneurs, for example, tend to save everything to gain competitive advantages and thus increase their dominance. Social same laws, moral and ethical installation grafted parents, on the contrary, interfere with the business, and everyone is trying to get around them to make more money.
One can not possess high intellectual abilities, and developed social skills h3>
If a person thinks of something else, looking for a solution, which to him was not in the nature and society, this eliminates a high level of adaptability. Even if society recognizes his genius, he did not fit into it. High socialization, in turn, leaves no time for anything. Massovik-entertainers are not very suitable for forced labor. Because they gain dominance, improve its rating through language, not cases.
To control people, one must appeal to the instincts h3>
What promise policy? We will change the social programs - you'll be better off. We will make affordable health care - you will save money and save the health. We will cut taxes - you will have a great meal. This offers all biological energy-related and life expectancy. Where social suggestions? Almost none of the politicians are not talking about changing the social structure of values. Instead, they say, we'll give you the money - and you multiply.
Or here's another example of reductio ad absurdum of instinctive behavior to establish dominance - smart home of Bill Gates. In this house there is a host - he goes, and it is configured for air conditioning, changing humidity, light. Exit - and adapts to the needs of less than superior. That is in the house, in fact, is a herd of baboons that his appearance in every room prove to each other who is more important. This is called smart home? Yes, it's schizophrenia in the monkey. Apotheosis of biological origin. And all this served as the structure of the world of the future. What is the structure of the world of the future ?! That and look tail grow a knee in this future. All innovations are aimed at the same thing.
We are waiting for intellectual degradation h3>
If civilization is to continue in its current form, which I doubt, our strong intellectual level drops. It's unavoidable. Already, educational level is significantly reduced, because there was a great thing - the information environment that allows people to imitate knowledge, education. For the primate is a very great temptation - such imitation allows to do nothing and succeed. Given that intellectual development will decrease demands on the level of social adaptation will rise.
Here, for example, have joined Europe. Who was the most successful? Clever? No. Most mobile and socialized, those who are willing to move to other cities and countries, and it survives perfectly. Now these people come into power in the governance structure. Europe, united, accelerated degradation of intelligence. On the level of values beyond man's ability to maintain relationships, the second - all the rest: the professionalism, skills. So we are waiting for intellectual degradation, reduction in the size of the brain, partly, perhaps, physical recovery - now promotes a healthy lifestyle.
The Female Brain less male h3>
A minimum difference in population on average 30 grams - a maximum of 250 at the expense of what it is smaller? Through associative centers are responsible for abstract thinking - they do not really need a woman, as her biological problems associated with reproduction. Therefore, women are particularly successful in areas related to education, education, culturological to identify - they are well maintained, retain, transfer of continuity of cultural - museums, libraries. In addition, they achieve excellent results in stable communities, where all the rules have already been identified and are well known. And, of course, women are geniuses - the brain structure is very changeable.