Consider methods of drying mushrooms in the microwave, on the Russian stove, in the sun, in the oven, and a method of making mushroom powder.
Drying is one of the most simple and accessible methods of harvesting mushrooms. Dried mushrooms can be stored for a long time. The nutrition and digestibility are superior salted and pickled mushrooms.
According to the protein content of dried mushrooms are superior to canned. When drying retains all the nutritional advantages of mushrooms; the aroma of some of the types in this method of harvesting has intensified, as, for example, the white mushroom.
However, not all edible mushrooms can be dried. A plate of mushrooms contain the bitterness that the drying process does not disappear. Mushrooms for drying are not suitable.
At home is to dry the following types of fungi:
- tubular white mushrooms, aspen, boletus, all kinds of oil, xerocomus, caslake, Dubovik, Polish mushroom;
- of marsupials — morels, Smorchkova cap, white truffle;
- of tinder — fungus sheep, tinder mottled and branched;
- of the plate — autumn honey agaric, Armillaria summer and winter, mushroom-umbrella motley, mushrooms, poverenik, cheshuichatoe fuzzy, deer fungus;
- from lisakovich — Fox ordinary.
Air drying mushrooms
- outdoors (in the sun)
- in the Russian oven (or ovens),
- in the oven,
- over a gas or electric stove,
- exotic heating appliances — kerosene stove or a kerosene stove,
- using modern microwave ovens,
- on the radiators, etc.
is only possible in hot, dry time in bright Sunny days. In cloudy wet weather to dry mushrooms in the open air is impossible, as they can deteriorate and dry out-they do not. Natural drying mushrooms in the sun lasts about a week. Mushrooms are strung on a sturdy harsh thread, thin twine or fishing line and hang in a Sunny spot so that they do not touch each other. You can make this special stand to place on them strung on thread or metal rods mushrooms and put them in the sun, covered with gauze from dust and flies.The most reliable methods should be considered drying in the Russian oven, drying mushrooms in the oven or over the stove (gas or electric).
For drying select fresh, firm, healthy mushrooms, not damaged by worms.
Cleaned mushrooms wiped with a clean, slightly damp soft cloth (preferably nylon), having cleared them from the pine needles, leaves, moss, sand, ground and sorted by size. Large mushroom caps, to speed up the drying process, it is better to cut into slices, cutting the stem at a distance of 2-3 cm from the cap. Legs white mushrooms, aspen mushrooms and brown cap boletus cut into bars with a length of 3-4 cm or wheels with a thickness of 2 cm with the oil, xerocomus, honey agaric, and chanterelles for drying are used mainly just cap, and the morels and the lines are dried whole. Wash mushrooms before drying is impossible, as they absorb a lot of water, dries very slowly and may spoil.To avoid contamination of mushrooms is better to dry on special devices:
the screens, lattices, braided, are strung on a thread or stud, mounted on wooden racks or on the spokes of gribouille.Mushrooms are considered to be dried if they feel seem dry, light, slightly bent, and with some effort — break.
Well dried mushrooms taste and aroma reminiscent of fresh. "Exit" dry mushrooms an average of 10-14% by weight of raw peeled. Thus, from 10 kg of fresh mushrooms is obtained only 1-1,4 kg of dried.
Dried mushrooms, but primarily dry small caps, you should promptly be periodically removed and left to dry to the desired condition. It is impossible to dry mushrooms, as they become unpalatable and lose their aroma when cooking is not softened and not mushy. At the same time nedosushennye mushrooms — badly stored, mold starts at the slightest damp and deteriorate quickly.
In the Russian oven can be dried all tubular and plate the mushrooms, the fungus. Not in the oven to dry morels.DRYING MUSHROOMS IN THE SUN
On hot days the mushrooms can be dried in the sun or just podvyalit, in order to dry them at higher temperatures on the stove or in the oven.
For this purpose, the mushrooms are placed on drying trays, heavy paper or dry Board. In any case it is impossible to lay the mushrooms on an iron griddle, because it mushrooms can be hot and black.
Drying is carried out in a place protected from rain and dust and breezy. It is very important that the mushrooms pre-sliced slices were slightly dried or completely dried within 1-2 days. In this case, they retain their natural color.
Properly dried mushrooms bend; dry crumble — these mushrooms is better to soak and use in powdered form.DRYING MUSHROOMS IN THE OVEN
When drying in the oven, the mushrooms are put in a thin layer on a specially-made or ready-made grilles in place of the usual trays. The oven temperature should be between 60-70°C and the air it is constantly circulated, the door should be kept ajar. As the drying of the mushroom grille swap from top to bottom.
In urban environments and for the modern kitchen — this method of drying mushrooms is probably the most common and simple: ovens (and grills in them) are in every home. If gratings are few (or no happen), then you can take 2-3 lattice on the size of the oven so as to install them instead of trays. The lattice can be made of any coarse wire mesh.
You can use a pan, if no bars. Mushrooms are selected according to size (large in this case cut into pieces) and lay it on the trays. The mushrooms should not touch each other, and in the oven, you need to ensure air circulation (open the door).
Initially, the mushrooms are slightly dried at a temperature of 45°C. At higher initial temperature on the surface of fungi are highlighted, and then dry protein substance that affects the further course of the drying and gives the mushrooms a dark color. The mushrooms become so soft that their use in food is impossible. Only after the surface of the mushrooms will dry up and they stop stick, the temperature can be raised to 75-80°C.
The duration of drying and drying mushrooms can be determined accurately. If the cap and plate of mushrooms the same size, they dry at the same time. Dry clean the mushrooms, and the rest dried up, from time to time turning them.DRYING MUSHROOMS IN THE MICROWAVE
When drying mushrooms in the microwave: peeled and sliced the mushrooms laid out on a plate or lattice, exhibiting minimum power 100-180 W and is on for 20 minutes, then the oven is opened and ventilated for 5-10 minutes. During this time, excess moisture evaporates rapidly. Then the operation is repeated another 2-3 times. In the end, it is possible to obtain at the output or finished product — dried mushrooms or intermediate product for further dosushki, it depends on the mushrooms.
This method of drying mushrooms is quite troublesome. Useful only if Your microwave has a large capacity. In the "small car" the process is very tedious and lengthy, although quite real.DRYING MUSHROOMS IN THE RUSSIAN FURNACE
Prepared dried mushrooms are put with their tops down on the grating, plaiting, or strung on the spokes. Loaded fixtures should be put in the oven when the temperature after the furnace will be reduced to 60-70°C. At a higher temperature to start the drying is not recommended, as the mushrooms can be bothered or roasted, to burn very black. At temperatures below 50°C they dry very slowly, sour and deteriorate.
Before downloading the mushrooms under the stove, you have to sweep to the floor on the left of ash. At the time of kiln drying should not be any utensils with food or water.
If the bars or braids do not have legs, for them it is necessary to lay bricks, set on edge, so that the mushrooms are not in contact with the furnace bottom.
During drying it is important to ensure removal of moisture evaporating from the mushrooms. To do this, the flap should be put on 2 bricks, leaving a gap between them for air flow from below. The upper part of the damper shall not close tightly the brow of the furnace, so I removed wet air.
The chimney at the beginning of the drying open valves at 0.75, as the drying of the mushrooms, it was gradually pushed to the end of the drying closed tightly. Mushrooms dry unevenly, small hats dry faster, larger is slower, so dried it is necessary to promptly clean, otherwise they will lose flavor and become tasteless. Nedosushennye mushrooms at the slightest dampness begin to mold.STORAGE OF DRIED MUSHROOMS, PRESERVING DRIED MUSHROOMS
Dried mushrooms are very hygroscopic: absorbs moisture from the surrounding air (especially if they are procured in powdered form), it is easy syreyut and moldy. In addition, they quickly absorb odors. Therefore, the dried mushrooms should be stored in dry, well ventilated area and is best in water resistant bags or in tightly sealed glass or metal cans.
Dried mushrooms can be stored also in gauze or canvas bags, but, strictly, in a well ventilated place and separately from products with a pungent odor.
If for some reason the mushrooms became wet, they should try and dry.
To preserve mushrooms for an extended period of time the mushrooms immediately after final drying (as long as they still retain their fragility and warm) put in hermetically closed glass jars. Banks are sterilized at a temperature of 90°C: half-liter — within 40 minutes, liter — 50 minutes.To suck air out of the jars, you can use the following method.
On the inner surface of the cap pour a little alcohol, light it and immediately close the jar. The combustion of alcohol consumed almost all the oxygen in the Bank, with the result that the mushrooms are not moldy, even if they were insufficiently dried and laying them was done in a damp location.
Before cooking food them from the mushrooms, wash brush, cleaning dust and dirt, and poured for several hours with water for swelling, and then in the same water cook.
Better yet, soak dried mushrooms in milk or milk mixed with water. Blackened in drying the mushrooms before putting in the soup, should be well washed, as they add the soup black. The broth from the mushrooms is left for possible sludge of sand, strain and use for soups, sauces or gravies.MANUFACTURER OF MUSHROOM POWDER
Well-dried or dried mushrooms can be ground and grind to a fine powder in a coffee grinder. When crushing collapse poorly digestible film coarse fibers, and mushrooms in this form better reveal their taste, aroma, and easier to assimilate. Especially good powder of dried porcini mushrooms.
For the mushroom powder when ground, add 5-10% by weight of fine salt for preservation. To taste you can add ground spices: allspice, cumin, dried celery leaves and parsley, etc.
Mushroom powder is very convenient for additives in food or in the end of cooking — no more than 0.5–1 minute before the end, or for direct additives to hot and cold foods — salads, soups, main dishes. In omelets is added when whisking the egg mass.
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Store mushroom powder should be in a glass jar with a tight lid in a dark place. Shelf life with virtually no reduction in quality — up to 1 year.
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©