What to do if you were attacked by Viper

Classic Russian representative of the family — the adder (Vipera berus). Widespread throughout the forest zone of Europe and Asia, in fact, "from the taiga to the British seas." What you need to do when you meet a Viper and what steps you need to take being bitten by a reptile, says medical journalist and a contributing physician Alexey Vodovozov.




  Perfection form an independent Viper family, Viperidae. Call them and educavida, and viperbyte, but rather just vipers. Sometimes using the structures "Oh, BL*, Viper!".

Live Viper almost everywhere, except Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland (thanks to SV.Patrick ;)), Madagascar, Hawaii and the far North. Although this greatly depends on which classification to follow. If considered more modern and advanced, cross out nafig a whole New Light, and we enter back to Australia.

This family is considered to be one of the youngest, and therefore absorbed in the course of natural selection all the best. The head of vipers is reminiscent of the tip of the spear, shields covering the head, small and almost do not differ from those on the body (unlike snake, for example). Eye small, above the eyes is usually small roller.

The head separated from the body of the cervical sharp interception, the body is short and thick, to the rear end tapers sharply and goes into a short blunt tail.






Poison apparatus of snakes can be called perfect. If you remember, asps poisonous teeth will not be removed, they are fixed at a certain angle (this is often can break). Viper has learned to press them to the sky, taking in the sheath, with the blade ago. Thanks to this feature, some representatives of the family grew to 4-inch teeth.

During the throw the Viper can open the jaws to almost 180°, the weapon raschehlyaetsya, its ends are directed forward, is thrust into the victim's body and doprovodem ducts injected the poison.

Another difference from vipers: no nobility. Viper will not warn about their presence, taking demonstrative postures and hissing loudly. They will try to slip away quietly. If not — will be biting. If your foot was next to the sleeping snake, then woke up her first bite, and then will figure out what it was.

In the spring of vipers more dangerous. First, poison at this time of year they have the most toxic, and second, the period of mating and nesting. In the warm season the vipers are mainly active at dusk and during the day they either sleep in nychka, or bask in the sun.

Peculiarities of the national poison

With slight variations the venom of all the vipers in the first place hemo - and cytotoxic. That is, it destroys blood and tissue. This happens because in the venom composition includes a large number of macromolecular enzymes-proteases. Such toxins are referred to as necrotizing.

Neurotoxins in the composition of the venom of vipers there is little, therefore, symptoms of lesions of the nervous system in the clinic is not marked. But enough local manifestations and surprises from the cardiovascular system.

In the first few minutes on the bite like nothing is happening. But it just seems. In fact, the evil rattlesnake enzymes were already being dismantled into components everything that comes their way. After 10-15 minutes it shows itself by swelling and redness. Within a few hours the swelling covers the entire limb, and then can spread to the torso. In severe cases at the site of the bite there are bubbles with hemorrhagic (bloody) content.






In the future, in place of the bubbles, there are signs of deep necrosis and nonhealing wounds. And bite can begin to turn into a mummy. Especially if it cosily in the brush. Fingers can dry out and shrink in size (mummified).

Simultaneously with the increase of edema, there is pain in the affected limb, which in 10-15 hours turns into PAIN. And about 10 hours, the patient goes on the walls, remembers snake relatives kindly quiet word and promises to Unscrew the head off the doctors who want to ease his suffering. What will you do if his arm or leg is actually digested alive? By the way, after the bite of some species of vipers, the PAIN occurs almost immediately, and what she grows then better not try to imagine.

Viper — the average number produce a smaller amount of poison than, say, Viper or alkoholowe. Therefore deaths from their stings significantly less. Yes, and most poisoning occurs in the form of light.

In mild cases the reaction to receiving a dose of the venom of vipers is limited to a slight swelling at the site of the bite, slight pain and redness. Going away without any consequences.

But in moderate and severe cases first there is a short period of excitation with shouting the already mentioned constructions "Oh, BL*, Viper!". The excitement gives way to apathy and drowsiness. Mouth feels dry and bitter aftertaste of tears. The release of large amounts of fluid from the vascular bed and the expansion of the capillaries causes a drop in blood pressure. The pulse quickens, weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath. In severe cases one can observe the collapse. Disrupts the function of the liver and kidney, appear in the lungs moist rales (congestion), may have a fever.






The greatest number of deaths occur in the first three days of poisoning. The main causes of shock of mixed Genesis and DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation). However, complications have a chance to go to a better world and at a later date.

The poison of vipers is used for peaceful purposes. So, on the basis of preparing the ointment has experienced an unexpected side effect and vibrators, which are used for articular pathology, sciatica and other problems with the musculoskeletal system.

Please help me!

As in all other cases, antidote therapy is the most effective. If the victim in the shortest possible time to enter a specific serum, which is directed to the specific poison of the Viper, he escaped with only slight shock. From "the rattlesnake" serums on the territory of the Russian Federation across Anticaduta, Antihorse and Antifa. The second and third less and less. Because the loss of the Russian Federation Central Asia as the region of residence of a Viper and the carpet, the relevance of serum against their poison for the Russians also lost.

In the case of vipers, the serum should be administered within the first 30 minutes. Well hours is the maximum. With the introduction of a few hours, its effectiveness will drop significantly, and later stabbing at all pointless.

What to do if the serum under side there? As usual — suck. Well, that has to suck. Poison. From the wound. Better with the help of special devices. Because the person with a perfectly healthy mouth is sometimes harder to find than whey. And in the case of vipers requirements for the integrity of teeth and oral mucosa is particularly relevant. Suck only makes sense within the first 10 minutes.

The wiring is not to impose! In any case. Poison is necrotizing, remember? The matter the fact that the arm or leg will have to amputated. At the level of the 2nd cervical vertebra.

What you need to do is to lay the victim so that the head was below the level of the feet. This we will maintain cerebral blood flow on a more or less acceptable level.

The spread of venom occurs mainly through the lymphatic vessels and increases with muscle contractions. This means that you need to immobilize the bitten limb, as in fractures (rule of two joints). Ideally, you should immobilize the victim and to give him plentiful warm and sweet drink (hot tea). No alcohol. Except that the witnesses not to mess with clumsy attempts at first aid.

Cuts and burns do also not necessary, once again — necrotizing venom, and so the damage scale. To aggravate the picture is not necessary.

Bloodletting is also not necessary to do. Poison in the systemic circulation is negligible. And with the blood there the problems start, as I wrote. And even more bleeding to anything good will not.

The sooner bitten get to the hospital, the better. If the biting snake was punished right at the crime scene, her still warm corpse should take with them. Thereby you will facilitate the identification of serum that should be applied in this particular case.

Not to breathe!

Prevention of the bites of vipers, in General, is reduced to the same simple rule — don't bother the snakes. But, as we have seen, vipers are not particularly in a hurry to announce your presence. So we ourselves have to take some precautions.

If we go into the woods, wear high boots. The vast majority of bites occur in the legs when a snake comes on the tail or enter the territory for nesting. Well or she just too lazy to crawl away. Unlike the Cobra, the Viper may not meet the high shots, the high — leg.

Overnight is better to stay on hills with sparse and low vegetation away from a variety of holes, rocks and glacial boulders. Don't leave tent open from the bottom before getting in sleeping bag check progrelas there wife Viper. There were cases when turyst wakes up in the morning, and next to it, you sneak. To shout and make sudden movements in such cases is not recommended, the bites in the neck, flow a lot harder.

Well, before we get into the strange bushes, reeds, crevices or holes, it is better to pre-enter and search for there with a long stick. What if going to pop out, for example, the bear is not know, it is the trauma ;)

Show me your face






The adder

Classic Russian representative of the family — the adder (Vipera berus). Widespread throughout the forest zone of Europe and Asia, in fact, "from the taiga to the British seas." The length is usually not more than 75 cm, color from gray-blue to black. On the back is a dark zigzag, which is usually well marked. Mortality when it bites, does not exceed 0.5 percent, and that, if assistance is at all turns, no.





Steppe Viper

In the Astrakhan and Volgograd regions, and indeed all the shores of the Caspian sea and the Black sea dwells a little smaller and the bright colouring of the steppe Viper (Vipera ursinii).





Gyurza

Vipera lebetina, or Viper is one of the largest and most dangerous of vipers. The length of some species reaches 1.6 meters. The coloration is very different, mostly with a predominantly brown background, on which there is darker spots.

Common on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northwest India, in the Caucasus and in southern Central Asia. Inhabits the dry foothills, the reeds, the cliffs and in river valleys.

Willing grazing along irrigation canals, cultivated lands and on the outskirts of villages. Able to climb trees for birds. When a person approaches the stop, and harbors anger, with a further approximation — attack and growl trying to eat. Without help, the mortality rate of about 10 percent.





Sand Viper

Among desert vipers are the most common, perhaps, is the sand Viper (Echis carinatus). A small snake 56-60 cm long with a very peculiar way of movement. She lives on the territory of deserts and semi-deserts of Northern Africa and southern Asia from Tunisia to India and Sri Lanka. In Russia is not found on the territory of the former Soviet Union lives on the South coast of the Aral sea and on the East coast of the Caspian sea up to the famous Kara-Bogaz-Gol.

In the most typical cases are painted in grey-sandy color on the border of the back and sides are lighter zigzags, the bottom is trimmed with dark. On the head — cross. Well, or something close to it.

The sand moves very unusual and very rapid "lateral" move. Able to "sink" in the sand, that is, immediately digging, pushing the sand grains are almost imperceptible transverse movements of the body. Quite toxic lethality in the absence of aid reaches 6 percent.





Chain Viper, or daboia (Vipera russelli). A large and dangerous snake. Distributed throughout South and South-East Asia, Taiwan, East Java, Sri Lanka and many other Islands in the region. Length of 1.5 meters, painting speckled, the main background is a brownish or grey. On the head — something like the arrows from the eyes to the corners of the mouth go bright stripes. In General, painted like an Indian before a fight.

One of the few vipers that is very loud hisses when you approach her. If the warning is not heeded, able to throw off the ground and fly a distance equal to the length of her torso, that is up to five feet. The venom highly toxic for humans, and introduces his daboya the bite quite a lot. Therefore, the mortality without treatment is as high as 15 percent. It is believed that on this beast represent the largest share of all registered in India and Indochina snake bites.





Noisy adder (Bitis arietans). The representative of the beautiful but fucking dangerous Bitis genus, found throughout Africa, except the North coast.

Length up to five feet, with a bright spotty pattern, a characteristic symptom of yellow Crescent-shaped band across the back. From the eyes to the temples are two broad bright bands, United bright transverse line.

There are in all landscapes, in addition to outright tropics and outright deserts. Conducts nocturnal, day sluggish and phlegmatic. If it is awake, begins to resent inflates the body and hisses loudly. For which he called noisy.

Bite is not weak, however, for this it needs the order no, for example, spin, holding the tail. Teeth reach 3-inch length, so the venom is injected deep enough into the tissue. Mortality without the aid ranges between 15 and 50 percent.





Special mention also deserve arboreal vipers of the genus Atheris. Small, nimble moving snakes that have adapted to life in the trees. They live in Central Africa. Painted in various shades of green with yellow spots and is well camouflaged in the foliage.

Bite without getting off the branches, respectively, fall in the upper part of the body, such as poisoning occur it is always hard and with a lot of complications.

Serum

In Russia it is still being produced, as a minimum, the NPO "Microgen", which it produces, till Oct 2010 have. I hope to continue to be extended.

Looks like this:





Only effective against the venom of vipers, that is a Monovalent serum. Using it in the bite of a Cobra, boomslang or mother-in-law is useless.published

 

 



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Source: www.livejournal.com/media/477231.html

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