Astrology, phrenology, and homeopathy 11 popular pseudoscience

Stories about edinorogahParallelno science has developed many teachings, supposedly based on scientific methodology, but in fact only imitating professional approach. They often offer simple solutions to problems, a serious study of which requires special training, are not critical to their own theories and have much trust coincidence. Site "theory and practice" made the list of the best-known pseudoscience - from phrenology to sotsioniki - and remember why they did not manage to win the confidence of scientists.

AstrologiyaPredskazyvat future, guided by the movements of the planets and stars, began in ancient times - the first evidence of attempts to find out the future are found in the myths of Sumeria and Babylon, where the heavenly bodies are identified with the gods. Greek astrology took over the idea of ​​a "divine" nature of the star and developed it to a familiar form. The most significant to date, the phenomenon of astrology - horoscopes, which are based on the individual influence of the planets for the 12 signs of the zodiac.



With modern scientific methodology methodology compatible astronomy that it has repeatedly been proven by scientists. A textbook example of evidence - debunking the statistical hypothesis of Michel Gauquelin, called "Mars effect" and Bertram Forer experiment called "Barnum effect". Gauquelin found the relationship between birth athletes champions and the phases of Mars, and has long insisted on the veracity of the results of his research until he was caught in the rigging of basic statistical data. In turn, Forer refuted astrology using social experiment: an outstanding student test to determine the specific features of their personality, he promised to provide on the basis of his individual psychological portrait of each, but instead handed over the uniform description drawn up on the basis of a horoscope. Most of the students praised their "personalized" description and praise the efforts of the professor.

However, despite the many arguments in favor of recognition of astrology a pseudoscience, horoscopes continue to be updated daily, some people continue to believe in the existence of the mythical planet Nibiru, which is able to destroy the earth, and "Society Flat Earth" (according to the tenets which Antarctica - only ice wall, encircling the world and photos of the Earth from space - counterfeiting) have not broken up, so that astrology, staying in certain circles, pseudo-science, in general, is booming.

FrenologiyaPsevdonauka, became widespread in the early XIX century, thanks to the research of the Austrian physician and anatomist F. J. Gall, who established the link between mental portrait of the personality and physical characteristics possessed skull. Gall believed that any internal changes in the brain, in particular, changes in the volume of its hemispheres, provoke visible changes in the relevant sections of the skull, in connection with which one can judge the development or underdevelopment of human rights and the existence of his specific skills, abilities and personal characteristics. < br />
Moviegoers phrenology familiar thanks to the film Quentin Tarantino's "Django Unchained" where the slave owner is interested in comparisons candy skulls of different races. This item is due to the historically - many American slave owners truly interested in phrenology in the XIX century and placed cruel experiments on his slaves. Dispelling phrenology happened together with the development of neurophysiology, is scientifically proven that the mental state does not depend on the topography of the brain, and especially the structure of the skull.

GomeopatiyaPsevdomeditsinskoe direction in science, the special calling to take homeopathic medicines to prevent the development of disease in the future. The founder of the direction - the German doctor Christian Hahnemann in the late XVIII century, developed a system of homeopathy treatment (he has put forward a so-called "coffee theory of disease", according to which almost all the famous people of the disease provoked exclusively use coffee). The basis of homeopathy is contrary to modern rational pharmacotherapeutic medical principle of "like cures like", so the drug in homeopathy, in fact, is a catalyst for the development of a lightweight form of the disease from which the patient is going to be treated. All allegedly acting formulations divorced at least twelve times the concentration and, in the opinion of the scientific community, are no different from a placebo - a substance that does not contain medicinal properties. At least, most of the studies did not confirm the efficacy of homeopathic medicines.

ParapsihologiyaParapsihologiya studies such supernatural phenomena as telepathy, telekinesis, clairvoyance, teleportation and suggestion. This parascience trying to convince the public that the move in time and space possible, and endowed with special talents of people can predict the future, and manage around the power of thought. Calling believe in astral duplicity, near-death experiences and reincarnation, parapsychologists have conducted many experiments and experiments to prove that there are superhuman capabilities.




Telepathy, for example, some time was explained by scientists using the "wave theory", which reported the presence of specific waves that when capturing a man could make him a certain way, similar to the way arising from another person, but this theory has not It has been proven and was declared insolvent. In the 1930s, for the presence of super-powers was investigated dicer, who argued that the power of thought can stack the cubes so that they showed the right amount, but more than 650 000 Throwing dice denied his application, finding that the random coincidences. Unable to establish the triumph of abnormal abilities and Uri Geller, known for its ability to modify the physical form of material objects at a distance. He was convicted at all in the fact that pre-processed fingers special chemical composition, which allowed him to bend a spoon just by touching them.

Reincarnation for 40 years tried to study scientist Ian Stevenson studied 3,000 cases of alleged rebirth matching birthmarks and birth defects of children and the dead, who had birthmarks and scars on the same field. Scientifically prove reincarnation failed. Similarly, none more extraordinary phenomenon has not been scientifically proven, and the constant emergence of new information about the phenomena of parapsychology is only due to the fact that a certain percentage of the world population still has not lost faith in the paranormal.

Ufologiya


Parascience mainly studying UFOs and recorded facts and upcoming opportunities to communicate with the inhabitants of the earth by aliens and aliens, ghosts and poltergeists. The main subject matter of ufology - paleocontacts - contact extraterrestrial beings with humans and even the attendance of our planet in the past. As proof of viability theory paleocontacts ufologists lead aliens left signs on the ground - crop circles, unidentified flying objects and other dubious artifacts. As a science arose only in ufology the 1940s, when they began to arrive the first evidence of "flying saucers" moving at supersonic speed. For such statements initially taken seriously, even the heads of many states, immediately create a special secret projects to study the phenomenon. In the US - the project "Sain" and the project "Blue Book", in Britain - "Room 801" in France - GEPAN. However, years of research confirm the main concern of ufologists that the earth is under the supervision of other creatures, did not succeed.

NumerologiyaParanauchnoe doctrine of the mystical meaning of numbers and their influence on people's lives. The impetus for the emergence of numerology received many centuries ago because of the Hebrew alphabet in which the letters were used also for writing numbers, because of which had their numerical values. The founder of the main provisions of numerology is considered a philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras who discovered the relationship between numbers and notes. After his discovery, he found that any object with any phenomenon of reality can be expressed in numbers.

In numerology, any multi-valued figure may be reduced to a unique, has its own characteristics including through the addition of its components.

Individual numerical equivalent of the letter and have, therefore, willing to numerology reveals "secret names" for everyone. The number makes it possible to solve the weaknesses and strengths of a person under its influence, predict the future and describe the patterns of his life. Multiple numerological number of tables and the presence of a variety of tactics addition of numbers does not allow to come to a common interpretation of the numbers that have always emphasized opponents spread numerology. Another strong argument in this doubters parascience associated with women's names. If yesterday the girl was, for example, "Belousova Anna Alexeyevna" and the number of its fate was considered the number "13", and today, she married a Spaniard and became, for example, "Mares Anna Alexeyevna," that the number of its fate has not "13 "and" 1 ».

Cryptozoology and kriptobotanika


Cmezhnye disciplines involved in the search for animals and plants, known to us only from legends, myths and stories of eyewitnesses, as well as the search for animals and plants, which, according to the recognition of scientists, considered extinct. Cryptozoology is not limited to the search for dinosaurs, dragons and unicorns, creatures, and they are engaged in more modern legends - Bigfoot and the Loch Ness monster. Scientists themselves engaged in cryptozoology or kriptobotanikoy recognize it pseudoscience, but still considered a useful discipline and continue to search the lake of demons (Ogopogo) and goat-vampire (Chupacabra).

HiromantiyaNenauchny method of establishing the relationship between the lines on the palm of a man and his destiny. Palmistry palms explores skin relief, particularly papillary line - it is believed that each of the lines is responsible for some direction in life, and to study its design, it is possible to predict the success of man's destiny in a particular area. The patterns on the hands, form the palm and fingers allow to understand the inner world: the thumb and extending from a line - the line of life, the index finger corresponds to the heart line, the average - a line of fate, anonymous - a line of happiness. As additional lines such as the line of marriage and the line of offspring, one can determine the success of marriage and number of children.

However, in numerous benefits for palmistry same signs on the palms are explained in different ways, and for predictions is proposed to use the left, then the right hand, on which patterns often contradictory. Palmistry is not recognized by science in most countries, but some are still considered a serious occupation: for example, the National Indian university and nowadays taught palmistry, and in Canada there is a "National Academy of palmistry." In contrast to the rapidly developing science of palmistry, seriously studying the skin of the palms and allows to determine predisposition to hereditary diseases - dermatoglyphics.

SotsionikaPsevdonauka built on the basis of the teachings of Jung's typology and archetypes, which offers the possibility, based on a specific test method to identify each man of his own so-called type "information metabolism" - the exchange of individual signals to the outside world - and classify it into one of the 16 described in detail sociotypes. Socionics as a separate doctrine emerged in the 1970s thanks to the efforts of the Lithuanian economist and psychologist Aushury Augustinavichiute. The key parameters for determining the type of information metabolism - the "feel", "thinking", "intuition", "feeling" (in the physical sense of the word), "introversion" and "extroversion": In different combinations, they form different personality types of personality. As a result of socionic test (it exists in several versions from different authors) every person provisionally identified with one of the 16 characters are named after famous people and literary characters (such as Don Quixote, Dumas Stirlitz or Napoleon), and an opportunity to learn about their compatibility other sotsiotip.

Socionics is known mainly in the former Soviet Union and is not considered official science - it does not have any general scientific theory or fixed uniform methods. She was also criticized for being too speculative and lack of empirical evidence. In addition, the concept has been greatly discredited crowds of enthusiasts who were taken from the course to determine personality types strangers, already dead people and even entire countries - while the founders sotsioniki stressed that does not claim to create a universal psychological classification for all occasions. < br />
FiziognomikaAlternativnoe direction in science, trying to prove the connection of the external appearance of a man with his character and spiritual qualities. Physiognomy is trying to "read" a person, especially the structure of the body, the meaning of gestures, postures and general bodily experience, which makes people, as well as to determine the level of human intelligence solely on his appearance and demeanor. In eastern countries physiognomy was not separated from medicine and started to develop before our era, calling for study of human based on the principle of "five peaks": forehead, nose, chin and cheekbones. In European culture, science, too, has found support, for example, Charles Darwin supported the development of physiognomy, believing that by studying the work of an individual muscle can understand what his basic personal inclinations. Based on the shape of the face, hair, position and shape of natural facial orifices and other reliefs on the face, starting from the basics of physiognomy, you can make for yourself a basic portrait of man's inner world.




Modern scientific community to imagine the possibilities of physiognomy does not believe, especially after it had conducted a study of twins who, despite the external identity, are often diametrically opposed characters.

Folk historiPreimuschestvenno pseudo-Russian direction, engaged in reshaping the historical realities, often with a view to the publication of books of mass orientation. Alternative history tends to be fiction, and fraud in the apparent preservation of scientific form. Author works pseudohistory pretends that opens the reader to a new story, but in reality only manipulated the facts and violating the logical connections, creates a "new history", which is contrary to the established for certain events.

Pseudohistory began to develop in Russia in the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when history has ceased to prevail over unified communist ideology. The predecessor of the direction considered Lev Gumilyov, which is offering its readers the theory of passionate ethnogeny also put forward very specific 'author' version of the story.

via theoryandpractice.ru/posts/8490--pseudoscience

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