Scientific theories were invented by the same people as we are, who can also make mistakes and do wrong conclusions about certain things. Due to lack of information, the scientists had to believe in the correctness of his ideas and hypotheses that we, modern people today seem a real nonsense. Scientific racism
Where do without him. Racism has always been many. Even the wisest and most respected. "Singer of the Enlightenment," Voltaire wrote: "How good the coast of the South Sea, and how abominable their inhabitants! It's just a beast ... When you look at them, and it begs the question, who came from whom they from apes or monkeys from them? Our sages teach that man - the likeness of God! A fine, however, the similarity of the Eternal: nose flattened, the mind does little or no »
It should be the same in the era of slavery was somehow justify their attitude to "beasts". And justified. In the middle of the XIX century French novelist Joseph Gobineau announced Aryan master race, created to rule over others. It is thanks to his ideas in the XX century would claim tens of millions of "subhuman". Racial theory, however, there were many. They have in common one thing - the desire to prove that you are better than the other. Just because he was born a German, Italian or an Englishman.
Today, all the pseudo-scientific racial theories considered and fully refuted.
Also it became a tool for growing anything and get rid of the unwanted. Not only national, but also "pure" Aryans, if they, God forbid, turned out to be disabled, they have a physical or mental defect or were inclined to homosexuality. The question, as always, is simple: in the best case, sterilization, and at worst - to be shot. To support the "unnatural" selection, even the Nazis created a special organization "Lebensborn" ( "Life"), establishes the country of mother and child at home. They grow "flowers of life", conceived solely by the Aryans, SS officers, passed the strict racial selection.
Few people know, but something similar happened in the Soviet Union .... In the 1920s. However, in the "country of the happiest workers," it was called pedagogy. No one, however, is not sterilized, or even shot. Means pedology was the unification of excellence in medicine, biology, psychology and pedagogy. The purpose - education of Nietzsche's superman. Superman bright future. Red son socialism. Children were selected for this purpose the most that neither is a "quality":. The offspring of members of the party leadership and the most capable - of mere mortals
Then waiting for them ... an orphanage, but not simple, and stuffed with "advanced" by psychologists and educators. How much of that did the Bolsheviks, nothing came of the project. The kids refused to be ideal and would like to mom. As a result, in 1936 issued a decree of the Central Committee of Communist Bolshevik Party "On Pedological Perversions in the People's Commissariats system." The program turned, but the children's fate was forever maimed.
Or, "the effect of the first male." Victims her is not known, but perhaps more numerous. Even in our days. Especially Telegonia concept was popular among creationists trying to prove that the woman before marriage must necessarily remain a virgin, no man's inferiority complex and high science.
The point is simple. Mating with the former, particularly with a first effect on the sexual partner hereditary characteristics female offspring (both in humans and in animals and plants). So if in the net, as Lake McKenzie in Australia, a family of blacks suddenly appears rosy-cheeked baby - is not the result of a gene mutation called "albinism" and punishment for "sins" of the mother. If not present, the past. Needless to say that with the opening of genetics, none of the ideas Telegonia not confirmed.
Theory focal sepsis
Fans of this hypothesis, became popular in the middle of the XIX century, believed that many diseases are caused by toxins released into the blood from any inflammatory focus in the body. This is especially true of mental retardation, arthritis and cancer. Treatment is simple - "cut to hell, without waiting for peritonitis»
And not only the appendix, removal of which at one time was put on stream in infants in the United States, so as not to bring to appendicitis in adulthood. Removing lead to immunodeficiency and threatening the lives of children: scientists have long found that the appendix is not as useless for our body, as previously thought. Cherveoobrazny process performs a protective function, helping to restore the intestinal microflora. Its absence in young children can cause serious health problems.
It is another thing. At the beginning of the last century English physician William Hunter has put forward the idea that the disease - the result of poor oral hygiene, and treatment of the patient's teeth does not make sense, it is still the site of infection is not eliminated. Therefore, in Europe and America at first suspected caries people mercilessly removed the teeth, tonsils and adenoids. And despite the fact that in 1940 the theory of focal sepsis has been completely disproven, Soviet children for a long time cut out the tonsils and adenoids for the purpose of "preventing a sore throat," and then ... zakarmlivali ice cream.
Phrenology b >
Another "justification" for the slave owners. The founder of phrenology - Austrian physician and anatomist Franz Joseph Gall. The bottom line is this: the brain structure (and with it the skull) depends on the mental and psychological qualities. If the skull is a convex, then, a quality for which it is responsible, the development of strong, if the "vpuklosti" - weaker
Each section of the brain clearly painted. Area temples, for example, is responsible for addiction to drinking and the desire to eat, his head - for friendship and sociability, and behind the ears for some reason, there is a zone of love for life. Such exercises, only associated with hand lines (hirosofiya) or the structure of the facial features (physiognomy), popular today, however, the harm they have brought much less. Despite the complete pseudoscientific.
Phrenology again sends us to the damn scientific racism. It is with the help of the hero of the film "Django Unchained" Calvin Candy explains why all the negros in nature - slaves. Fortunately, thanks to the development of neurophysiology in the 1840s, phrenology craze began to decline.
Treat like with like - though the principle advocated by Woland, but science is not recognized. Homeopathic medication - not that other, as much diluted the poison. Concentration - one molecule of the original substance of the lake, that is simply water. Clinical trials of homeopathic "medicines" established: the differences between their actions and those of placebo (a substance that has no medicinal properties, and the effect of which is explained solely by "faith" in his patient efficacy) no. The scientific community name-calling homeopathy "the great scam of our time", quackery and fraud, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has warned: "The use of homeopathy has no evidence base, and when used as an alternative to the basic treatment, it poses a real threat to health and people's lives. »
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