With the permission of the authors, we publish interesting material Arriva
«Arriva" asked the engineer, a lover of science and comic books, and in combination - the creator and author of the website www.lifehack .ru Denis Balueva and design engineer of the Russian aircraft building plant Konstantin Zykov consider various properties of superheroes and tell how they can now, in the 21st century, the century of amazing technologies.
blockquote> The word "superhero" known at least since 1917, has since devised and drawn hundreds of characters with extraordinary abilities. Superpowers have different sources: some were the result of cosmic intervention and complex mutations, while others are created by the human mind. As time passes, science, technology and medicine developed, and many Superproperty, seemed completely implausible, have gradually come to life around us.
Iron Man: pravdopodobno
brilliant inventor and engineer Tony Stark was injured by shrapnel in the chest during a field test on the suitability of battle armor, which was to give soldiers fighting abilities. Was captured by the Lord of War, Stark, along with his friend, Nobel Prize in Physics Insenom Ho, he began working on a modified exoskeleton equipped with heavy weapons. Returning to America, he redesigned the suit and is first protected with the help of their business interests, and then switched to issues of national and international security, and even become a sponsor of the team the Avengers.
To suit Iron Man worked properly and was associated with kiberpaticheski by Starck, the inventor introduced in the nervous system the virus extrem-. As an additional effect, it gave healing factor, as well as several other advantages, such as superhuman strength and instant access to any computer. Stark can lift up to 70 tons in the standard mode of operation, in addition, jet boots allows him to fly. The suit is equipped with built-in reactor and various weapons: repulsor rays in hand, missiles, lasers and flamethrowers. Uniluch near his chest capable of emitting various kinds of light energy, and it comprises a helmet communication devices, equipment for scanning and recording apparatus.
- So, let's piecemeal. Removing unnecessary husks pseudoscientific terms, we quickly realize that:
A) Iron Man suit - the so-called exoskeleton, ie, a device designed to increase strength and endurance at the expense of the outer frame. The development of exoskeletons in full swing in all developed countries, first of all, naturally, in the Defense Ministry. As an example you can see, for example, the development company Raytheon.
B) The virus extrem- - actually not a virus, but a set of self-replicating nano-robots that can build any objects from the surrounding atoms. Penetrating into the body and secure in the circulatory system, they will provide a connection to the suit, eliminate the bleeding and help to regenerate damaged tissue.
In 1986, Eric Drexler in his book "Engines of Creation" described the principle of operation of these machines and possible problems with them, for example, man-made disaster due to their uncontrolled reproduction. Prior to the creation of so-called molecular assemblers deal is not reached, but the basic restrictions in terms of science is not here, we are only holding back the current level of technology.
B) The most implausible element in the history of Iron Man - his ability to fly. If the flight is based on the principle of jet-powered, it is unclear which houses the working fluid, which expires at high speed from the engine in accordance with the law of conservation of momentum forms a reactive force, pushing the engine in the opposite direction. It is easy to estimate that, for all aerobatic maneuvers that maketh Tony Stark, he would have to drag myself huge backpack booster more of him every three or four.
- Everything is not so simple: you can take the Iron Man as a superhero, but you can - as a kind of prophecy as precognition. This concept of development of weapons and the army of the future, which is already being tested and implemented. The exoskeleton, light but incredibly tenacious armor, jet boots - all seasoned with electronics and served in a light magical briefcase, which carry the power of even fragile Gwyneth Paltrow. It is the dream of all warriors of the world, perhaps.
There are, of course, claims to methods of creating this energy of the crystal in the second part of the movie about a superhero. Tony, man! I forgave you briefcase with an internal volume as in the wagon, I forgave you the reactor in the chest (your colleagues - the victims of man-made disaster, a priori), but forgive you create a new chemical element! .. And not breaking up! And you're wielding a wrench! And the first time! This is too much. And engines in your hands and feet ... If they are reactive, then where do you keep the fuel for them? If they are non-reactive, then where is the blue flame? Okay, you can leave on the conscience of the writers.
Optimus Prime and the other Autobots: pravdopodobnoAvtoboty, the heroes of comic books and movies about the transformer, in fact - not prone to aggression and to defend the world animate cars, if you want to know how to transform into humanoid robots. In the movie "Transformers" their name stands for "autonomous robotic life forms." But because the Autobots transform mainly in the car, probably closer to the truth of the names of the other transcript: "cars-robots." According to legend, the Autobots and their opponents Decepticons created by God-transformer Primus, who later remade itself in the planet Cybertron.
- Technically, transforming robots into cars, nothing is impossible - and you toy company Hasbro (toys produces a transformer - approx. "Arriva") to prove it. Another thing is that the transformation of robots in automobile and back - is "too human." Transforming complicated alien organism in the four-wheel-cart with antediluvian internal combustion engine? Are you serious?
While it is understandable why we like the history of confrontation with the Decepticons Autobots. The idea that your loan bought Nissan's actually a secret ally of Optimus Prime, warms the soul and forces cinemas to carry money on another Michael Bay blockbuster flickering.
- The fact that from cars, airplanes, and even audio tapes can turn into something anthropomorphic, knew all the boys in the '90s. It was cool! Seriously, it was the coolest toy! We were not interested in that to the car could go under the hood I had to be the engine, not the head of the robot. You could crawl with Romka and Vasya on the floor of the kindergarten, pushing the machine, and then shouting "transformed!" Protect the good start on this planet. Everything, in short - they exist!
Black Widow: pravdopodobnoRasprostranёnnaya history among superheroes - transformation and the emergence of super-powers as a result of any medication, serum or other means. The first association, of course, it's Captain America (with their superheroes Black Widow did, in fact, one and the same tool, developed in America, and the Soviet Union). However, we consider the best the Black Widow. Firstly, this is an infrequent representative of the female characters in the regiment, and secondly, according to legend, she was Russian. In 1984, the KGB operativnitse Natasha Romanova test serum "Super-Soldier". Thanks to Natasha can use peak capabilities of the organism: strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and so on. Serum also has the effect of delayed aging.
- The rudiments of common sense in the history of Comrade Romanov available: this kind of preparations to temporarily reinforce responsiveness, endurance or enabling not sleep really were special laboratories in many countries during the Cold War. One snag - they give a temporary effect, because it actually used the resources of the organism. After a short - very short - time, the depletion of resources (primarily the nervous system) made itself felt depression, hyperthermia, high blood pressure and other muck. What is already here slows aging! Quite the contrary.
- In general, the use of special drugs, substances, elixirs, even in the case of spinach sailor Papaya - is, in my opinion, some cheating. Here you have no capacity potion, so what? All! There is no one to save the world! Sorry for primitive thinking. Although in the case of Black Widow I like the name, and the fact that, according to legend, she was from the USSR. Yes, and the pictures it straight sex. You can forgive some errors.
Wolverine - mutant, and his superpowers are expressed in regeneration, which allows him to survive after a severe injury, fatal to the average person. In addition, it is characterized by the ability to resist poisons, increased stamina and agility work sharpened senses, slow the aging process. But most important, or rather visible differences from the human body Wolverine - the presence on each hand three claw-like daggers and razor-sharp. After participating in the experiment, "Weapon X" Wolverine's skeleton was covered with indestructible alloy - adamantium.
- In principle, the regeneration of certain organs is nothing contrary to science. It is necessary to look at the lizards, which grow a new tail after the old bit off a predator. Although it is believed that an increase in the complexity of the body's ability to regenerate its decline, it is possible that the mutation Wolverine just activated off the mechanism of a normal person.
- Here Wolverine - well done. He is self-sufficient, tenacious, and he has a "knife"! He did not run out of pills, do not run low energy reactor - its claws are always with him. This, by the way, and "civilian" is not uncommon. I mean, metal, ceramic and polymeric implants that replace people damaged joints and bones. Covering adamantium skeleton - not a bad idea, even economically it is more advantageous than fully adamantium bones. Yes, and how to change them entirely something?
Professor X, also known as Charles Francis Xavier: 50/50
Superhero, known as the leader and founder of the X-Men - Mutant. He can read minds, cause illusion, temporary paralysis, loss of memory of any event or complete amnesia, to send a very strong psychic waves. In addition, it is able to sense the presence of other mutant telepath in a small radius.
- All of the effects are really well explained by the presence of Professor X infrasound generator, that is the sound with a very low frequency vibrations below 16 Hz. Not audible to the human ear, they are, nevertheless, lead to nerve damage of the brain and endocrine organs. Outwardly, this may manifest as headache, blurred vision, unreasoning panic, nausea, dyspnea, loss of consciousness.
- Hard to go against the professor - he once did the leader. But to be honest, his ability is not supported by official science. And in real life it would be a charlatan or recognized, or began to carry out experiments on him.
Cyclops - is also a mutant. Its main feature - let eyes strong ruby red laser beams, which causes him to wear goggles at all times and a special visor in combat. Rays draw power from ambient energy absorption, especially sunlight. Some stories indicate that if Cyclops cut off from sunlight, he loses his superpowers. According to legend, the Cyclops cage constantly absorb solar and other energy and transmitting it in his eyes, which are apertures is projected spaceless non-Einstein particles in the form of a beam. Contrary to popular misconception, the optical beams are not projected heat rather, the pressure produces a beam that can beat him, and then if you want to destroy objects.
- Perhaps the most vague from a scientific point of view of a character. Non-Einstein particles - this is what? And what is the beam, "generating pressure"? Gimme a break! In the hit parade of the most unrealistic superhero Cyclops confidently takes the first place.
- Lasers - one of the most popular weapons of the future version of science fiction. And, apparently, the future approaches - increasingly began to appear information about the use of the laser beam to destroy the missiles, so far only the tests go. Again, Cyclops uses solar energy to him no complaints.
Iceman *: nepravdopodobno
* here could be considered many superheroes, to radically change the physical characteristics of the body. Iceman is selected for a visual explanation.
Iceman justifies its name and on domestic grounds and outside. He can change their body temperature to radiate intense cold, and frozen items with one touch of the hand. In addition, if desired, he can turn into ice and frozen moist air around them, and then create a weapon from it - for example, ice shells and knives. Such capacity would have to be in conflict with the physical theory of the world, according to which "seized" in one place the heat is obliged to appear in another. Moreover, in view of the second law of thermodynamics, "appeared" heat would be even more remote than (those who are not very friendly with physics, can look at your refrigerator as an example). Where Iceman Virgo it appear warm - not explained.
- That's right: Iceman its existence allegedly violates the second law of thermodynamics. But to speak here in the role of devil's advocate and pretend that kriokinezis Iceman - not that other, as the work of Maxwell's demon, who knows how to sort molecules surrounding speed. Quick - to the left, slow - to the right. Thus, the ice-man instantly cools the skin of the enemy, thus heating the surrounding air. But where he caught Maxwell's demon (which, as we know, was just a thought experiment of the great physicist), we do not know.
- In general, it is a group of superheroes, which matters a lot. If you have something to heat or cool if increases or decreases in size, if you can be liquid, gaseous or solid as a rock, you know: your main enemy is not some villain, and thermodynamics! Yes, yes, she questioned your existence and sverhvozmozhnosti! Think about such terrible words like "enthalpy", "entropy", "the laws of thermodynamics." Of course, I also do not remember them, but I brew coffee on a hot plate, not on the palms.
And in general, you know, who are the worst superhero villain? Man boring - he is constantly trying to tell you the error, implausibility and flaws of the author. So never get pleasure from watching the movie or comic book.
Anastasia Zakharova Z