A brief overview of the main argumentov
is believed that from 1969 to 1972, the year the United States six times walked on the moon, 12 astronauts set foot on its surface. However, to this day one can hear the opinion that the landing Americans on the moon - a great hoax. Let's try to understand this delicate matter.
The theory of "lunar conspiracy"
In 1974, the world saw the book American Bill Keyzinga "We have never traveled to the Moon" - it was the beginning of the spread of the theory of "lunar conspiracy." Keyzinga have had reason to raise this issue, as he worked for Rocketdyne, which has built the rocket engines for the program Apollo.
The arguments supporting the staging of flights to the Moon author draws attention to the incidents "moon photos" - uneven shadows, no stars, the small size of the Earth. Keyzing also refers to the lack of technological equipment of NASA at the time of implementation of the lunar program.
The number of supporters of the "lunar conspiracy" grew rapidly as increasing the number of exposures of a manned flight to the moon. So David Percy - a member of the British Royal Photographic Society does have a more detailed analysis of photographs provided by NASA. In particular, he believes that in the absence of the atmosphere in the shadow of the moon should be absolutely black, and the different directions of these shadows had given him a reason to assume the existence of multiple light sources.
Skeptics have noted other strange details - American flag fluttering in the airless environment of space, the lack of deep craters that were formed by landing the lunar module. Engineer Ralph Rene gives even more compelling argument - to prevent the exposure of astronauts space suits had to be covered with at least 80 sanimetrovym layer of lead!
In 2003, the year the flames threw the widow of American director Stanley Kubrick, Christiane, who said that the stage landing Americans on the moon were taken by her husband in the halls of Hollywood.
On the "lunar conspiracy" in Rossii
Oddly, but in the Soviet Union called into question the flights "Apollo" moon seriously nobody put. In particular, in the Soviet press after the first landing Americans on the moon appeared materials confirming this fact. As for the success of the American lunar program and expressed many Russian cosmonauts, among them Alexei Leonov and Georgy Grechko.
So Leonov says: "Seriously believe that the Americans were on the moon, can only be completely ignorant. And unfortunately, the whole saga of the absurd allegedly fabricated in Hollywood shots, started from the Americans ».
However, Soviet cosmonaut did not deny the fact that some of the scenes visit of Americans on the moon were dosnyaty in the world to make video reports certain sequence: "It is impossible, for example, had to remove the actual opening of the Neil Armstrong of the hatch of the landing craft on the moon - on the surface it's just no one be removed! »
Confidence in the success of local experts lunar mission is related primarily to the fact that the flight "Apollo" to the Moon was recorded Soviet equipment - that signals from the spacecraft, and the negotiations with the crew, and the TV picture on the exit of astronauts on the lunar surface. In case if signals were on Earth, it would be immediately exposed.
Cosmonaut Konstantin Feoktistov and designer in his book "The path of life. Between yesterday and tomorrow "writes that to reliably simulate the flight would have to be" pre-land on the lunar surface television relay and check its operation (with the transfer of the Earth) ... And in the days of the simulation of the expedition had to send to the moon Radio repeater for simulating radio "Apollo "Earth to the Moon flight trajectory." Arrange a hoax, according to Feoktistov, no less complicated than the present expedition.
Also on the "lunar conspiracy" commented Russian President Vladimir Putin, calling in an interview with "utter nonsense" version of the US falsified landing on the moon.
However, in today's Russia continues to leave incriminating articles, books, films about technically impossible to carry out such a mission, they also thoroughly versed and criticized the photo and video "lunar mission».
NASA recognized that they are bombarded with so many messages with a particular argument, proving the falsification of flights that they are simply unable to fend off all the attacks. However, some of the objections can be dropped, knowing the basic laws of physics.
We know that the location of the shadow depends on the shape of the object and knocks them from surface topography - this explains the uneven shadows on the lunar photographs. A shadow, converging at the far point, nothing but the manifestation of the law of perspective. The idea of multiple light sources (projectors) is untenable in itself, as in this case, each of the illuminated objects to cast shadows at least two.
Visibility cloth fluttering in the wind because the flag was mounted on a flexible aluminum substrate, which was in motion, with the upper beam has been put forward not to the end, which creates the effect smyatosti web. On Earth, air resistance quickly dampens the oscillatory motion, but in an airless environment, the movement is much longer.
According to NASA engineer Jim Oberg, the most convincing evidence that the flag was mounted on the Moon is the following fact: when astronauts were close to the cloth, it remained absolutely still, which might not be in the earth's atmosphere.
The fact that the stars in the daytime on the moon is not visible, an astronomer Patrick Moore knew before the flight. He explains that the human eye as a camera lens just can not adapt to both the illuminated surface of the moon and the dim sky.
It is more difficult to explain why the lander did not leave behind craters on the lunar surface, or at least not dispersed dust, although NASA specialists and motivated by the fact that the planting machine greatly slowed down and land on the moon on a sliding path.
Perhaps the most compelling argument of supporters of "conspiracy theory" is that the crew simply could not overcome the radiation surrounding the Earth "Van Allen Belt" and would have burned alive. However, the Van Allen was not inclined to exaggerate his theory, explaining that the passage of the belt at high speed does not threaten astronauts.
Nevertheless, it remains a mystery how the astronauts were saved from a powerful radiation on the surface of the moon in a fairly light suits.
Peering into Lunu
The heated debate was forgotten a bit what the astronauts after each successful descent set on the Moon laser rangefinders. Texas observatory "MacDonald" for several decades directing a laser beam at a corner reflector units lunar experts received a response signal in the form of flashes that recorded the highly sensitive equipment.
On the 40th anniversary of the flight of "Apollo -11" automatic interplanetary station LRO has made a series of pictures in a place of lunar landing module, fixing presumably the remains of the equipment of American crews. Later, pictures were made with a higher resolution at which you can see traces of the all-terrain vehicle, and even, according to the NASA astronauts footprints themselves.
However inspire more confidence pictures taken disinterested parties. So, the Japanese space agency JAXA announced that the device is "Kaguya" found possible traces of "Apollo 15". A Fellow of the Indian Space Research Organization Prakash Chauhan said the device "Chandrayaan-1" was the image fragment lander. But finally dot the "i" can only be a new manned mission to the moon. Author: Taras Repin
Source: Russian Seven em>