Summary of the Soviet space exploration, types of rockets and the most significant victories in this field. Part 1

Good day, my dear reader. Your venerable servant, like millions of boys born in the Soviet Union, had dreamed of becoming an astronaut. I they did not, in relation to health and how it does not sound strange growth. But far and unknown space, leads me to this day.

In this article, I want to tell you about such interesting and truly cosmic thing as launch vehicles and payload which they brought into space.

Ample space exploration began in the middle of the third five-year period after the Second World War. Were active in many developing countries, but the main course was foremost of the USSR and the USA. Superiority in the successful launch of the rocket, and the output from the PS-1 (the simplest satellite) into orbit, belonged to the USSR. Before the first successful launch was already six generations of missiles and only the seventh generation (R-7) were able to develop the first space speed 8km / s to overcome gravity and reach the Earth orbit. Space rocket took its origin from long-range ballistic missiles, by speeding up the engine. First I will explain you something. Rocket and spaceship are two different things.






Missile itself, it only means of delivering spacecraft into space. This is the first 30 meters of the figure. A spaceship is already mounted on a rocket into the top. However, the spacecraft there may not be, there can be located anything ranging from a satellite, ending a nuclear warhead. Which serves as a great incentive for states and fear. The first successful launch and conclude a satellite into orbit, so much for the country. But most importantly of all, a military advantage.

Sami boosters until the first successful launch have only alpha-numeric designation. And only after successful conclusion of fixing the payload to the predetermined height is obtained the title.

In the treasury scholar: "Sputnik" - and became an intercontinental ballistic missile 8K71 (R-7), as well as all the famous ball with four antennas, which she brought into the cosmos. It happened October 4, 1957.




Here is the first artificial satellite PS-1 passes a final check of all systems.




PS-1 in space. (Picture is not the original shot)

Within five months, was launched another launcher (8A91) Sputnik 3. Such a short period of the development related to the fact that the first carrier rockets could lift payloads into space of a few pounds, and with the launch of the PS-1 on board, was only the first US goal in gate. When the Americans took the fact that the USSR overtook them in the race for first place in the spacewalk, they began with a vengeance dopilivat their missiles. USSR was again ahead of the US need to create a missile that could bring into space payload tonne. And this is, after all, already a real threat. Who knows what can be filled with a rocket and send to Washington? And the "Sputnik 3" was just the first rocket with a payload of 1,300 kg.




Launcher "Sputnik". On the left are three satellites, which he put into orbit the earth.

In the United States, and without it was a nuclear hysteria. In kindergartens, schools, factories, began endless exercises in case of nuclear attack. It was the first time that Americans had nothing to confront the Soviet Union. Intercontinental ballistic missiles could reach the USSR for 11 minutes. Fly from space nuclear charge can be much faster. Of course, all this is too difficult to really think so. But fear has big eyes.








By the way, another thing to add piggy Scholar: How do you think, how much time the rocket flies into space? Hour or two? Maybe half an hour?
To reach a height of 118 km, the rocket takes approximately 500 seconds, less than 10 minutes. The height of 118 km (100 km) is the so-called line pocket where aeronautics becomes completely impossible. Commonly assumed that the flight is considered a space if the line Karman was overcome.



Rocket true American, but this figure is very well reflects the atmosphere of the earth and the transition point.

Third rocket was "Moon". USSR, seeing vain attempts of Americans, with their capitalist system, which builds the rocket did not state, and private companies that are interested in a greater degree of income than in the space race, began to think about the flight to the moon. And for 2 December 1959, the launcher (8K71) by equipping the third stage (block "E"), successfully went toward our causes tides. Could before, but because of the self-oscillations developing launch vehicles were destroyed in flight at 102-104 seconds. And only after the installation of fuel systems blocks hydraulic dampers rocket successfully reached ... heliocentric orbit and became the first artificial satellite of the sun. And all because of not taking into consideration the propagation time of the radio command AMC (automatic interplanetary station).

Another rocket launcher was "East" 8K72. He then flew in September 1959 to the moon and successfully threw back the AMC "Luna 2", and a pair of pentagons with the symbols of the USSR.



Carrier rocket "Vostok" standing on a pedestal at ENEA in Moscow.



Two metal of the Pentagon with the symbols of the USSR sent together with AWS-2 at the moon.

(After this success, the Americans began to build the pavilion, where they decided to make a film about the landing on the moon. Joke.) October 4 this year, launched a similar missile AMC Luna 3, which for the first time in human history, was able to take a picture of the back side Moon. Forcing ordinary Americans to cry, huddled in a corner. So, unfortunately, the moon on the other hand are absolutely the same and there is no lunopark and lunar cities.



The reverse side of the moon. 1959.

The king was planning to run full speed into space man and this, in perfect secrecy, develop life-support systems in space. Spacecraft series "Sputnik", launched May 15, 1960. Was the first prototype ship-satellite "Vostok", which was used for the first manned space flight.



Reduced copy of the spaceship "Sputnik»

"Sputnik-4" was created for the study of the life-support systems and different situations of human space flight: it sent a doll height is 164 cm and weighing 72 kg. After four days of flight satellite deviated from the planned course and at the beginning of braking instead of entering the atmosphere turned thrown into a higher orbit, and then was unable to return to the atmosphere as planned. The wreckage of the satellite were found in the midst of the main street in the town Manitevak in the US state of Wisconsin, which as it suggests.



Remains of "Sputnik-4" in the middle of the main street in the town Manitevak in the US state of Wisconsin.



Sputnik 4



1. Photographic; 2. The lander; 3. Cylinders orientation system; 4. The instrument compartment;
5. Antennas telemetry systems; 6. Brake propulsion; 7. The orientation sensor on the Sun;
8. Builder vertically; 9. The antenna is a radio program; 10. The antenna system of signals intelligence

After this incident, every two months, were launching rocket carrier on the East, any of the fauna of the earth. In July, the dog run Seagull and chanterelles, but unfortunately, at 19 seconds of the flight from the launch vehicle side collapsed first stage unit, causing it fell and exploded. Dogs Seagull and Fox died.



The first dog having flown into space. Back it was unfortunately not destined.

And in August 60go, carried out two successful flight of our pride, Squirrel and The arrow! But the following information, write in your kopilochku: Together with Belka and Strelka on board were 40 mice and 2 rats. They spent in space 1 day and 9 hours. Shortly after landing at Arrows were born six healthy puppies. One of them asked personally Nikita Khrushchev. He sent it as a gift Caroline Kennedy, daughter of US President John F. Kennedy.







Belka and Strelka, the first dogs returning from space.



On board the "Sputnik-5" were not only dogs, but also so cute rat.

In December of the same year, was the launch of Sputnik-6. The ship's crew had dogs Fly and Bee, two guinea pigs, two white laboratory rats, 14 black C57 mice, the mice seven hybrids from the SBA and C57 mice and five albino mice. A series of biological experiments include studies on the possibility of flight and space rockets nageofizicheskih beings, observing the behavior of higher animals in terms of flights, as well as the study of complex phenomena in the near-Earth space.
Scientists have studied the impact on the animals most physical factors and the nature of space: the modified gravity, vibration and overloads, sound and noise stimuli of different intensities, the impact of space radiation, hypokinesia and physical inactivity. The flight lasted just over a day. At the turn of the 17th due to control system failure brake motor, the descent began in off-design district. [1] It was decided to destroy the machine by blasting charge, in order to eliminate unplanned drop in foreign territory. All living beings on board were killed. Despite the fact that the machine was destroyed, the mission objectives have been met, the collected scientific data transmitted to Earth by means of telemetry and television.



Dog Fly and Bee before space flight.

After this incident, there were two successful and one not, launch rockets East. Americans resented and every day became more gloomy and gloomy and otherwise intercepted encrypted signals and tried to decipher them, but suffered Faile.



Spy Photos obtained by US intelligence, to decipher the code radio broadcasts from "Sputnik 6»

April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union gave its final blow and sent into space Yuri on the same launch vehicles in the spacecraft Vostok 1, which completed one revolution around the Earth and landed 10 hours and 55 minutes. To understand what the spaceship Vostok 1, will bring its overall characteristics:

• The weight of the machine - 4, 725 tons;
• The diameter of the enclosure - 2, 2 m;
• length (without antenna) - 4, 4 m;
• Maximum diameter - 2, 43 m

(As already stated above, I'm not an astronaut just had the opportunity to sit in the same unit on the ground.) It is very uncomfortable aircraft I tell you. With my height at 190cm, it was extremely uncomfortable to sit in a chair bucket, but still in the suit. On that Gagarin and was selected by height, weight and health. (170/70 / great) But even Gagarin probably felt uncomfortable in such a tiny capsule.



Gagarin's flight in the cut. The picture is not the most accurate, but as an example of the solution.

I note that the first human flight was fully automatic, but Yura could at any time to switch to manual control ship. For this purpose, it was necessary to introduce a special security code to disable automatic that was in a sealed envelope, which was in the egg, egg in a duck, duck ... .koroche before flight, Korolev Yuri whispered this code still never know? And everything was done in order that no one knew how to behave in the human nervous system in space and do not come if he mad. Under this code to manually control placed in an envelope, which has managed to open only sane person.



Our universal pride!

I want to tell you some interesting details about the first human flight.

Gagarin was still the "Cedar".



The launch is always on uneven time.



In 9-57 Gagarin waved to the president of America, flying over thereof.



Bus carrying astronauts to the rocket, blue.



The same bus.



Gagarin could withdraw at any time from the flight, and it would replace Titov, which in turn could replace Nelyubov.

Pencils in space better tie. By the way, due to weightlessness in space ordinary pens do not write.

During the descent of the spacecraft, due to problems in the brake-propulsion ship began to rotate in 10 minutes with an amplitude of full revolution in 1 second. Gagarin did not frighten the Queen and vaguely reported contingency that says about his nerves of steel. All landers such as the East, sit on a ballistic trajectory, which leads to overload up to 10 ji. Besides, the ship is very hot and wild crackles in the lower atmosphere, which can be very much pressure on the psyche. When the ship reaches 7 km above the ground, there is a bailout astronaut who descends from the lander separately on their own parachutes. What is a bailout on the ship Orient? When the lander releases the parachute and the speed to 900 km / h gradually drops to 72km / h, under-seat astronaut activated pyrotechnic charge and a chair with an astronaut takes off with a whistle in free fall. Then the astronaut must have time to disconnect from the chair and already own descend by parachute to the ground. And this despite the wild overload, constant fear and distrust of automation. Gagarin after the bailout did not load the oxygen supply valve and he began to choke. After some time, the valve opens and the Jura deep breath. When the parachute opened, it began to drift right into the Volga. Let me remind you that the water is a bit cold in April and again he found himself on the verge of death, and saved his ability to maneuver using a sling. I think, not words, that he had for this hour with some suffered a great deal. It was worth it. Yuri Gagarin, the most famous (contemporary) man on the earth, from ever lived.



During the descent, the capsule begins to burn in the lower atmosphere.



Parachute opens at speed 900km / h



Capsule lands with a speed of 7m / s



That's burns lander.



Prelaunch check of all systems.



Korolev not hide excitement communicates with Gagarin during flight.

The most famous person on the planet!


On the cover of Time magazine.



On the cover of Life.



But he was very humble.

At this point I ended the first part of the Soviet space exploration. If you're curious sequel I'll be happy to write. Later I will tell you about other countries, including the United States and who also have done a lot in this area.

Source: habrahabr.ru/post/226629/

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