Aleksandr Lazutkin - Flight Engineer "Soyuz TM-25"

While there preparing Prodlёnka about astronauts, I had the opportunity to talk a little with Aleksandr Lazutkin, flight engineer "Soyuz TM-25" (184 days and 22 hours on the "Union" and "Mir" station). If anything, he was a flight engineer in perhaps the emergency flight - and then a fire station, and a collision with a cargo ship, the failure of thermoregulation, producing oxygen and much more neraschёtnyh situations.

He has a lot of interviews, if you're interested - easily searched. But the journalists asked him constantly about some global things, and I just was interested in everyday flight engineer. So I asked about the little things. Maybe you and they will also be interesting.

The station is in the mind - a house. Change the furniture, and the technique. Old walls, inside everything changes. Old equipment is replaced with the new ... The traditional schedule - lifting, exercise, breakfast, work. During the day, twice the exercise for an hour. Jobs range from cleaning station - when everything Wipe and beauty you direct - to conduct experiments that can go one after the other without stopping. Blockquote> Sam Alexander is very calm, positive, somewhat ironic. Think before each phrase, one feels wants to tell as accurately as possible and weigh every word.

We talked somewhere half an hour, I wrote on the tablet is not always full, so there may be some distortion and error - just forgive. Then I will tell what he had learned, plus punctuate written quotations.

About repairs and accident
Repair at the station "Mir" - a phenomenon planned and regular. Flight engineer constantly busy some tekuchkoj. In general, it should be understood that all 184 days were carefully painted still on Earth - the entire flight consists of experiments, and every day to do a few pieces. The duration of the flight, in fact, is determined by this research program.

When something breaks, then, as a rule, if it does not threaten the work station - you need to put in the repair plan.

Broke some machine, you do not immediately throw it repaired. From the Earth to send schedule when possible. And just recommend what to do. There are extraordinary situations that require immediate intervention. Then PCO notified about what you are doing ... there are things that need to respond instantly. For example, when a fire broke out at the station - to report on the ground "We got off, what to do?" - This is nonsense. Therefore rushed to put out the fire, then as soon as possible informed. Do not panic. Where on fire, what, what degree of smoke station.

There at the station greenhouse with plants - and if there see that broke down the water supply, according to the Earth that does not work so-and-so, such outward signs. This information comes through MCC professionals who are engaged in the greenhouse. They featured guess what happened. Produce recommendations provide repair technology, it comes at MCC, then over the air to us. Planned time when the loan - tomorrow from 13:30 to 14:30 you can work with this greenhouse. Blockquote> Damage to any system on the station - in general, an ordinary case. A typical scheme is this: it is turned off, the repair plan is put in the work, part-replacement stuck, wipe - and the system starts to work again. Many systems are usually repaired one - you need to have something to do with the other. Of the most serious - February 23, 1997 at the station there was a fire on the defective oxygen checkers. June 25 at redock TAG "Progress M-34" - the collision of the ship with a complex, depressurization module "Spectrum".

In our flight - the intervals between breakdowns reduced to a minimum - is oxygen generation system broke down at the same time that the temperature controls, plus something else. There are cycles of performance (100 hours - and that this system with a certain probability to break), and this through 150-200 - and we are so fortunate that these cycles coincided fully. Then it all went - the next crew worked less. Blockquote> In the work schedule astronaut have the time and for scheduled maintenance (such as replacement filters), and experiments, and a reserve on the calculated unscheduled repairs (in the sense that something will break but this is normal due to wear) and to emergency situations. But since it is in this flight was a lot of damage, the schedule was tight. About half the time it took work as a flight engineer, half - experiments.

In our flight proceeded in parallel - I'm starting to experiment and immediately repaired, that broke. Increase the intensity of labor. Slept less - just because of the fact that the experiment - and more repairs. As there were contingencies - and repaired, and worked left after midnight. Was that slept a little. Blockquote> Of course, each new crew brings new equipment, the station is constantly updated. I ask, is it possible that the old have to rebuild from. Of course, the intact blocks as possible are used, but such that the individual capacitors unsolder - this is almost there. Old equipment separately formed and the gateway is not thrown (before doing so):

... Came up to put in a small airlock, then shoot. Then I realized that what is thrown, can render not a good service. This litter at 8 kilometers per second - and when he falls into the atmosphere is not always clear. You need to send. Why trash? Blockquote> Now cargo ship brings new equipment. It is removed, is put in its place the old. Truck undocks and burns up in the atmosphere over a given area of ​​land.

Here is his speech at Prodlёnke, very cool. From 10:50 he tells the story of a chain of accidents:

For those who do not believe in a fire in zero gravity - doing the right thing. Around the flame formed quickly warm layer which does not rise, and isolates access to oxygen. The problem is that the station caught fire just solid oxygen checker. I>

About cleaning
Another regular articles prevention - is a constant cleaning station.

The main source of debris - man. Clothing when donning and doffing. Crumbs when eaten. You set your equipment - to create dust. Again, particle delivery. Settles it all. At home on the walls and ceiling dust is typed - at the same station. Constantly blowing air flow from the fan. Naturally, everything revolves. There is a filter through which all this takes place, but the mass of dust remains. Blockquote> The most cheerful, of course, with mold.

There is a closed volume. Bacteria are not killed, and we need to disinfect the station once a week. All surfaces shall be cleaned with special sanitized napkins. Mould: If plaque is not clear - is reported to Earth, because it is a subject of study. God knows from what was formed - because all measures are taken. It is necessary to take samples, throw them on the ground.

Station flying long, and we all arrived with terrestrial bacteria. Of course, you try to limit (dezifetsiruyut body, keep pathogens were not). But you find yourself in a space where the station for 10 years. And the atmosphere of that time has not changed. There bacteria first visit people live and conditions differ from the earth. Mutate, of course, they are not the same earth. What they turn - scientific interest. And it's all covered so far. I flew to the "World", the station 15 years of summer. ISS now flies just almost the same and will fly 25 years - also wonder what is happening there. Blockquote> About vacation

The output is. What? Yes, but we also worked, there was no way. Labor Day is observed. Flight - it's not squeezing juices, body reserves are limited. Day off - this exercise, work, but there is free time to rest. As a general rule, also Saturday and Sunday - closed. But usually finish that did not have time on other days. And yet these days are planned experiments and unimportant when not required to communicate with the Earth ...

Usually you look out the window and shoot. Sometimes you read a book, sometimes watched movies. Just go for a walk did not work. Our film library is large, each crew brings something. Then there were the film. You fly - you ask what I want to see. Rewrite, give small cassette 8 mm film. At the station on stenochke such tapes from past expeditions. 10 years before we have accumulated a lot, there was no shortage. We had a great Japanese screen broke, was removed. Viewed on the camcorder viewfinder. Then, at once, found out that the American computer is kind of laptops, but not a laptop. When we learned steel watch with him. Blockquote> About ergonomics
Of course, I could not help but ask around about the ergonomics and features of the tools in such conditions. Alexander pointed to the light bulb on the ceiling and explained that ergonomics in general not the same as we used to. Firstly here at the station to fix a light bulb would be very convenient. Pushed away and sat down on the ceiling, did we need, flew back. And we have to haul the ladder.

Of the disadvantages - at the station, of course, there is no industrial base, so all that took flight, can not be modified. And many of the tools are not the most comfortable. For 10 years, of course, the experience of dialed, but still, it happens that give comments on the Earth, they say, it would be good to add this tool handle, and so on.

Everything that is done in the world to fly - done by people with experience, everyone understands what needs to be ergonomic control it, how to put in order not accidental clicks. How to do it, that it was not broken.

Here is a set of tools. The simplest example - should not fly an instrument (ie, must be fixed immediately to something). Well if it magnetic. For metal propped up and running. But our walls are not all magnets are made of aluminum alloys. Therefore done karabinchik - and clothes. Clothing itself is also made so that it could be on the record (usually, but not always, not always). If you work inside the station - a tool to fall, you find him. But all the tools on the outer surface - they are the same in terms of functionality, screwdriver and screwdriver - but there fasteners. Be sure to ring the retaining means. Plus the tool itself - it is one thing just to keep his hand, and another thing in the big inflated glove, and even when the sensitivity fell on his fingers. Everything is done by a person in these gloves. The tool itself must also not damage the suit. For example, if there is a very sharp knife without protection - slash on the suit as doing nothing. Die immediately. Therefore, everything is thought out. If you need it to be, then to be used only in its sheath. Operation thought out so that the cut transversely in front of him and nothing else, and teach it to the ground in advance.

Or here's an ordinary hammer. Outside the normal inside the other. We hammer that does not bounce. Inside the hammer half-filled volume fraction. After hitting the shot catches up and fixes it compensates for the time rebound. Fraction of its presses. Scissors - with huge arms and so on. Sometimes the material to be cut from the outside, working part scissors normal size like a tailor - but try to do to work with the whole hand, not fingers. Blockquote> clenched his fists, - gloves, they say - and shows the scale handles about 10-inch scissors to work in a suit: wider than shoulder width.

About training in the world
Prior to the flight the flight engineer works with the layout station in life-size, with the same equipment. There are typical operations that fit exactly - for example, the same filter replacement. They practiced on the model "as is" many times. The rest - on the situation, learn to react. I thought that the best procedure - is to lose all situations failures in the history of flight, but not - teach, rather, to make decisions, and not to close specific problems.

Sometimes something not worked - for example, remove the unit, which did not take off. Include the brain and think. References to the Earth as a hedge of the next devices, disconnect at bumazhechke work. Sometimes a piece of paper and does not help - it is easier on the eye to determine. Naturally, you do not mindlessly work, have the experience and background. An Example? Electrical appliance must be isolated and tested. If the pipeline - it is necessary to block mandatory. Space station it is this: you do not touch it, it flies. Arrived at the house, and the house rushes. As a rule, there is always time to think. With fire - extinguishing practiced in the world - everyone knew what to do. Understanding the physics of the process, react. There are common mechanisms - off ventilation, wear masks - and we must do at different points in different ways.

Failure to take a simulator of life and invent - the so-called settlement contingencies. It has a calculated method of output - shortchanged, talked, included in the training plan. There noncalculated - there is at the discretion of the crew what to do. When something happens, analyze how that happened and why - should include the design situation or not. Something can be solved without a crew. As for astronauts - it is not Superman - understanding that human capabilities are limited to receiving information and preparation time - in his programs include important. Blockquote>
 As the crew flew an American, I naturally could not resist and asked about the joint Soviet and American technology.

When done in one country - have been worked out all the rules and guests. Began to work with foreigners - different approaches, different designs. On Earth, everything is executed, as will be joined. There flying all licked. No such to foreign equipment is not docked with ours. There is no difference in domestic appliances you import or find flaws. Sometimes what is there something better, more convenient. Or vice versa. Increased range of equipment with which to work. The process is the same. Blockquote> Here it should be noted that the flight engineer could not control the ship (not included in the program, perhaps because the flight engineers - "civil" and commanders - military pilots). But the commander held a flight engineer and training as well.

I have finished civilian university. The choice was not an only flight engineer. Now otherwise. Who can be a civil and commander. Main experience. Led by the most experienced crew. I was not prepared to manage. Now preparing the same - flight engineer can control the ship. Everything else he could do the same. We complement each other in flight. Blockquote> About weightlessness

In fact, a lot of surprises ... Once it was necessary to conduct an experiment. Spherical tank deflated like a balloon filled with water was needed and conduct research. It was important that the air in the balloon was not. All measures are in - the ball was evacuate, was a special valve - but not provided, any volume of air left (the material is not so soft folds). When filled, the gas bubbles formed. Show the experimenter in the world - he says, remove the gas. And get them in weightlessness is difficult - it is not gas-rises. In weightless bubbles floating in the water. Proposed to unwind around the axis with the ball in his hands to the water pinned to the far wall, and all the air was near the body. While cool - and it turns out. But it turns out, it is necessary to stop somewhere hour, because then again mixed. We then man says - "You can take this capacity ahead and begin to rotate? Steep together: one holds the second pumps. " We then need a third, who twisted would not work like that. People here and there in a completely different thoughts. Blockquote> Alexander at all other interviews talked a lot about weightlessness - here we are not particularly asked not to be repeated. In short - the first 10 days to get used very painful, it was bad.

When used to - you do not care. Brains have adapted. You do not notice, no questions asked. Convenient - to anywhere in the station to get. Blockquote> I asked, of course, about reflexes, again, to ergonomics.

From bones washed calcium - just had a case where a man hit his palm on the table in the debate - and broke his finger. We are such things usually do not notice, so at the very beginning with the first minutes of being in the world are you in control - and fast to do anything you can not. When I was taken out of the lander, put in a chaise lounge-chair, 7-10 meters journalists in front of me is the commander. Then asked - there turned out there - there turned. Turned his head - was wrong. I think I will run around the eyes. Eyes began - also became ill. It should be more careful ... The first time rose - give, I think, is passed. Look, leg go. Just need to make sure that what put the foot forward, the center of gravity to move. Mechanically not obtained immediately. You can rely on the leg, and the muscles relax ... More can not quickly turn 90, it's very sudden movement, enters first.

Cup? No cups in the air did not put ... Although here we throw everything in the cosmos.  

All Things.


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