Faina Ranevskaya (Feldman) was born August 27, 1896 in Taganrog, a wealthy Jewish family. Her father, Hirsch Haimovich, was a prosperous merchant, shopkeeper and dry paint factory, had several houses and boat "Saint Nicholas." This provides the family a comfortable existence. In addition to her family already had two older sons and daughter Bella. In his youth, Faina is very jealous of the beauty of his sister, in the future all the beautiful girls she called "fifami».
In my parents' house the future actress felt lost and alone. In part, this stems from the fact that she stuttered, partly from the increased vulnerability and her complex relationship with her father. It is known that Haimovich Hirsch spoke about the child "Fanechka we have not so beautiful, also stutters. Poor child ».
In 1904, his parents sent her younger daughter Marian gymnasium for girls. Studied young schoolgirl bad hardest Faina was given arithmetic. With barely graduated from junior classes, she begged her father to allow her home schooling. A further her education was typical for the children of wealthy families of that time - the emphasis is on singing, music, and foreign languages. However, the future actress since childhood loved to read, and in the fourteen years it's passion for theater. Faina attended all city performances. The biggest impression was it a play by Chekhov's "The Cherry Orchard" directed by Stanislavsky. Curiously, the alias itself Faina later chosen by the name of one of the heroines of the play.
Soon, the young girl was determined to become an actress. To do this, she became involved in a private drama school. Its main purpose is to overcome stuttering. Also in the classroom Faina studied stage speech, he learned to move correctly. Her parents are easy on the daughter's hobby, but only until such time as she announced that seriously wants to become a professional actress. The house broke a major scandal. However, the Faina was adamant in its decision, and in 1915 one went to Moscow to continue to study acting.
So just come true dream girl was not to be. Neither one of the capital's theater schools took it neither "for failure." Then Faina started attending a private institution. Money to pay for desperately short, and Ranevskaya had to leave, and the attempt to become an actress. In difficult times, she met with Catherine Geltser. She helped get Ranevskaya in the crowd Summer Theatre Malakhovka ten kilometers from Moscow.
In 1916, after the end of the theater season Faina Ranevskaya was unemployed. Thus began her wanderings in various provincial theaters. Ranevskaya visited Kerch, Feodosia, Kislovodsk and Rostov-on-Don. The mother secretly sent from father daughter remittances. In 1917, a wealthy Jewish family Feldman was forced to flee from the Revolution, not sulivshey her any good. They decided to emigrate on his own boat, but the youngest daughter to go abroad flatly refused - Ranevskaya was unbearable separation from his beloved homeland.
In 1918 in Rostov-on-Don Ranevskaya I met with Paul Wolfe - woman who became her mentor and a true friend to the whole future life. In those years, Wolf has been a renowned provincial actress. She recalled how once after the show to her in the locker room burst into "red clumsy girl," began immediately to show their admiration and ask to help her to become an actress. Irritated similar behavior stranger Woolf advised her to learn of the proposed play any role to their own choice. Ranevskaya preferred the Italian character.
To avoid failure, and knowing full well that this was her only chance, Faina find in an Italian town baker and diligently rehearsed with him more than a week. When she spoke to Wolfe, she quickly realized that she met a real talent. At that time, her company was sent to the Crimea, and there was no way to arrange Ranevskaya. And then Paul Leontievna took the only possible decision - took the girl to him. Since then, the Faina was her student, and a full member of the family. After becoming famous, Faina from anyone not tolerate comments except Wolfe, and only trusted her fully. Paul Wolfe died in 1961 at the hands of Ranevskaya, for which her death was a great shock - she quit smoking even though fifty years of his life could not do without cigarettes.
Ranevskaya film debut took place in 1934 in the film "Doughnut" M. Romm on a novel by Guy de Maupassant. Later Romm, then just starting out, the actress became a favorite director. Faina landed the role of Mrs. Loiseau, and played it beautifully. Came to the Soviet Union of popular writer Romain Rolland, having seen the film, I was delighted with him, and among the actors in the first place is allocated Ranevskaya. He asked to see the film in France, and there is "Doughnut" also was a huge success.
Then Faina Ranevskaya once starred in three films: "Man in a Case", "Error engineer Cochin" and "foundling". The role of self-confident ladies from the last films presented Ranevskaya national love. For comedy actress independently came up with a number of phrases. One "Mulia not nervous about me!" - Haunted her later life. Many people, meeting Faina, jokingly said to her words, in theory, intended henpecked husband, instead of the heroine Ranevskaya. This annoyed the actress, then to hate the role brought her popularity. There is a story that in 1976, Leonid Brezhnev, handing Faina Order of Lenin, instead of greeting shouted: "Mulya not nervous about me." Ranevskaya instantly responded: "Leonid Ilyich, I was treated so or hooligans, or the boys." Embarrassed, the secretary general said only: "I'm sorry, I love you».
In 1947 he went to a comedy show "Spring" with inimitable Lyubov Orlova and Nikolay Cherkasov. Tiny episode withdrawn heroine Ranevskaya, the actress composed herself - film director Grigory Alexandrov allowed her to create for themselves a role. For a couple with Rostislav Plyatt it made into a movie entertaining comedic phrases, and eventually a couple of them even remembered longer than the lead actors. At the same time Faina starred as Stepmother in the famous fairy tale "Cinderella." Screenwriter Yevgeny Shvarts, extremely sensitive about any further ado, also allowed herself to think out texts. A negative figure in her performance went so charming and plausible that over half a century pleases audiences of different generations.
During his life he changed Ranevskaya many theaters, and always for different reasons.
Speaking of Faina Ranevskaya, it should be noted it is very difficult relationship with colleagues. We are talking about it all: some artists complained about her willfulness and unbearable, while others - adored and admired. One thing is certain - it is not one of those people who hesitate to speak the truth in the face. Ranevskaya's statements became the basis of a collection of aphorisms not only could she sarcastically and accurately reflect reality. Many colleagues seriously feared becoming the object of her quips. But in fact, Faina was an extremely vulnerable person, understanding and sympathetic. Her acute sense of humor is a kind of protection from the surrounding reality. Close people knew that the taunts of phrases and external malice hides a good heart sympathetic person. Since childhood, the actress pursued various doubts and fears, and seemingly capricious antics were often dictated by necessity. Ranevskaya, for example, was afraid of closed and open spaces, moved only by taxi, because she could not bring herself to ride the subway. All her life she worried about her appearance, and in his youth, oddly enough, was afraid of the stage, and even appealed to the doctors who helped her to develop his own method of self-hypnosis.
Faina has not found happiness in his personal life, she had no children or their families. She said, "All who love me - I did not like. And she loved me - I did not like ».
In 1970, Ranevskaya pleased the youngest viewers - in the movie "Carlson returned" charming domomuchitelnitsa Bok voice says Faina. Also on television screens the residents of our country saw Ranevskaya in the TV play "Then - silence." Thirteen years, the Moscow City Council theater productions enjoyed the audience success. And in October 1983, Faina ever left the scene - the actress's health was too weak. She went uneventfully, without speeches and wires, simply by notifying the director of the theater of his decision.
During the long years of creative work Faina did not play from the world repertoire of any major role. Ranevskaya often said that before the end failed to fulfill his destiny: "I am well aware that I was talented, but what I have created? I squeaked and just ... I was born and the life nedovyyavlennoy nedopokazannoy'm leaving. " However, the national love says the opposite. Number of her screen and stage work is not great, but how it works! Played its episodic characters etched in the memory of the viewer is much stronger than the role of the first plan.
In old age, Faina was very lonely, despite repeated visits to friends. She joked about it: "Old age - a time when the candles on a birthday cake out of the cake more expensive, and half the urine goes on analyzes" and "Loneliness, as a state, can not be treated." The only joy was the actress dog, whom she called a boy. The boy was an ordinary mongrel, which barely alive with broken legs found on the street and saved. Remaining alone, the dog began to howl and creepy, however, was the owner of his beloved.
In the spring of 1984 Ranevskaya with pneumonia and suspected myocardial third admitted to the hospital. In the summer, she fell and broke her hip. Terrible pain haunted her until the last days of life. July 19 great actress died and was buried next to her sister in the necropolis of Donskoy Monastery.
Honored Artist of the RSFSR (1937). People's Artist of the RSFSR (1947). Stalin Prize of the USSR. People's Artist of the USSR (03/03/1961). Awarded: 1947 - the Order "Badge of Honor". 1950 - Order of the Red Banner of Labor. 1976 - the Order of Lenin.
Aphorisms and quotations Faina Ranevskaya:
"The money I was opening, and shame will remain" - the answer Ranevskaya in the offer to play in a certain pattern.
"You want to sit on the neck - spreads her legs!»
"Sclerosis can not be cured, but you can forget about it».
"I feel great, but it is bad».
"Optimism - a lack of information».
Ranevskaya invites and warns that the call does not work: "When you come, knock down". "Why are your feet, Faina?" "But you're not going to come empty-handed!»
"Family replaces all. So, before you start it, you should consider that more important to you: all or a family ».
Ranevskaya asked: "What, in your opinion, women tend to be on the safe side: brunettes or blondes?" Without hesitation, she replied, "Gray!»
An employee of the Radio N. constantly experiencing the drama because of his love relationship with a colleague, who was called Sima: she was crying because another quarrel, he threw it. Ranevskaya called her "victim HeraSimy».
"The Lyubov Orlova in the closet as much fur that moles can not learn to fly».
"Faina - asks her old friend - how do you think the medicine is making progress?" - "And how. As a young doctor I had to undress each time, but now the language is sufficient to show ».
Ranevskaya was in his dressing room make-up completely naked. And smoking. Suddenly it came without knocking managing director of the Mossovet Theater Valentin schoolchildren. And stood dumbfounded. Faina asked quietly: "I hope I have not shocked that smoke Belomor».
"For many reasons I can not really answer you words, what you eat. But I sincerely hope that when you return home, your mother will jump out of the gate, and how should you bite ».
"If a person really wants to live, doctors powerless».
Zinovy Gerdt (real name - Hrapinovich Zolman Efraimovich) was born September 21, 1916 into a poor Jewish family in the town of Sebezh, Vitebsk province. There he lived for 11 years, studied in a Jewish school, knew Yiddish. When the older brother, Boris went to Moscow and got a family there, the younger brother moved in with him.
From a young age Gerdt fond of poetry, he wrote poetry, he could spend hours reading Pushkin, Samoilova, Pasternak, all the works which he knew by heart. Craving for poetry, the future actor planted a school teacher of literature.
At age 15, he graduated from trade schools Moscow Kuibyshev Electric Machinery Plant, and worked as a mechanic, an electrician in the construction of the Moscow metro. At the factory, the Workers' Youth Theatre (TRAM), in which the actor played his first role. He graduated from drama school Arbuzov. Since 1937 - an actor of the Puppet Theatre at the Moscow House of Pioneers.
Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War Zinovy Gerdt, with reservations, he volunteered for the front. He was a senior lieutenant sapper company. February 12, 1943 took part in demining of mine fields for breakthrough tanks to Kharkiv and was severely wounded in the leg. For four years he could walk only on crutches, suffered a 11 complex operations, but one leg still always remained shorter than the other by as much as eight centimeters, lameness remained for life.
In 1945-1982 years Gerdt was in the company of the Central Puppet Theatre under the direction of Sergei Obraztsov. He gave his voice a variety of characters, the most famous entertainers of "Unusual Concert". In this role, Gerdt has won worldwide recognition. In each country, he led the party entertainers in the local language and was so convincing that the audience believed that their language is known actor in the subtleties: Gerdt had mastered the art of onomatopoeia.
The film Zinovy Gerdt came as an actor dubbing. Voice Gerdt said foreign heroes of the screen, was also involved in articulating a number of films, including animation.
The film debuted in 1958 in a cameo role in the movie "The Man with the planet earth." Recognition of the public came to the actor after the first big roles - Kukushkin in the film "The Magician" (1967, directed by Peter Todorovski) and Panikovski in the adaptation of the novel by Ilf and Petrov "Golden Calf" (1968, directed by Michael Schweitzer). All in all as an artist for more than 70 films.
Zinovy Gerdt is known primarily as a master of sporadic, mostly comedic roles, it was called "the genius of the episode" - among dozens of roles played by them in the theater and cinema, there was almost no major. But even the small role the actor was remembered to spectators: in fact it has been invested all his talent, all uncompromising, all self-esteem.
Zinovy Gerdt has also worked in television. He was the first leader of one of the most popular Soviet TV programs "Kinopanorama", the first edition of which was aired in 1962. In the 1990s, he led a popular authoring program "Tea Club».
Zinovy Gerdt, died in Moscow on November 18, 1996.
Prizes and awards: the Order of the Red Star (1947), Order of the Patriotic War I art. (06.11.1985), the Order "For Merit» III degree (1996). Honored Artist of the RSFSR (05/09/1959), People's Artist of the RSFSR (1969), People's Artist of the USSR (09.07.1990).
Irina Murzaeva was born May 15, 1906 Krasnoufimsk Vyatka province. His father was a painter, he taught drawing. His mother worked as a teacher in elementary school. Fate threw their family to different cities of the Russian heartland, until finally Murzaeva not settled in Moscow. Here, under the leadership of my mother gave storey orphanage in Shabolovka. The teachers went all relatives: and dad and aunt and grandmother. We lived on the first floor, working on the second. Here the father of organized shadow theater and Irina first came into contact with the mystery of theater art.
While in high school, the girl found a drama club and was the closest to learn the basics of acting. But the drama club led by none other than the young Nikolai Plotnikov - star Vakhtangov scene, Professor of VGIK.
But contact with Irina Murzaeva Plotnikov was short-lived. She turned and went for the first time showing his innate integrity and uncompromising, when the future direction of the Soviet master allowed once you click the girl's nose. "Silly, - told her young teacher - you'll never be an actress ...". He is deeply mistaken! Irina Murzaeva decided to prove himself in the first place, of course, that she would be an actress.