Myth and Reality. Sherlock Holmes

Indeed there lived a genius detective named Sherlock Holmes?
Someone meticulous estimated that 52 statements Holmes became aphorisms and in the everyday lives of the British. The most famous of them: "This is a matter of three tubes, Watson!" And how many anecdotes about the famous detective walks through the world! Chapaev with Stirlitz rest ...

14 Picchu.


2min 08sek.

When Mr. Holmes withdrew from business and settled on a small farm in Sussex, to indulge his hobby - the breeding of bees, a few elderly ladies were ready to carry on his farm, becoming a sort of successors Mrs Hudson. One particularly persistent lady assured me that loves to breed bees and can accurately "identify the queen».
Finally, a message flashed in one of the British newspapers in 1957: January 6, the day of his birth, 103, died Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock Holmes was a huge card file on all known criminals. Not surprisingly, information about the detective consultant carefully collected and preserved not only in the annals of Scotland Yard, but also in the private archives of the criminal world ..

Last Name, First Name: Holmes, Sherlock.
Year of birth: 1887 (see. Encyclopedia Britannica). However, some Bendzhis Nathan, one of the admirers of Mr. Holmes called a very different year - 1854 th. And even specified the day - January 6th.
Parents: father - Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; Mother - name unknown. Granddaughter sister French painter Horace Vernet (1789-1863).
Marital status: Single.
Relatives brother - Mycroft Holmes, Sherlock's older than seven years. Politician.
Appearance: thin addition, the growth of more than six feet (180 cm), thin aquiline nose, square, slightly protruding chin forward, a sharp, piercing look, "somewhat raspy" voice.
Education: perhaps studied at Oxford. Cambridge is excluded.
Location: United Kingdom, London, Baker Street, 221-B.
Occupation: private investigator or detective consultant.
First job: investigating the cause of the sudden death of the magistrate Mr. Trevor (story "Gloria Scott»).
Friends: Dr. Watson on a surname (or Watson). Meeting was held in 1881.
The main enemies of Professor Moriarty, Colonel Sebastian Moran.
Bad habits: smoking, addiction to morphine and cocaine.
Hobbies: chemistry, playing the violin. He has a weakness for the Turkish baths.
Favorite newspaper "Daily Telegraph", "Times».
Sports, boxing, fencing, golf, swimming, martial arts. Excellent shooting from a pistol.
Published works: brochure "certain varieties of tobacco ash", "Guidelines for the breeding of bees' work on the footprints on the impact of trades on the shape of the hand, the monograph" Polyphonic Motets Lassus. " Peru Sherlock Holmes also owns two stories of their own investigations. The best of them - the "lion's mane».
NB: Life of Sherlock Holmes after 1914 is not known.

In the XIX century in England was very popular American poet, writer and scholar Oliver Wendell Holmes. On a shelf A. Conan Doyle had always been his book, "autocrat", "The Poet", "Professor at the dinner table." Once Sir Arthur said, "Do I still do not understand and did not like a man who has never seen. Meet him was the purpose of my life, but, ironically, I arrived in his hometown at the moment in time to lay a wreath on his fresh grave. " Now we know where it came from the name of Holmes? But the name of it was not so easy. A. Conan Doyle hesitated to call the great detective: Sherlock or Sheringford.

Modern biographers unanimously Sir Arthur argued that the many years financially dependent on the consulting detective. And, as often happens in such cases, not very bestowed this person. Overcoming finally depressing lack of money, Conan Doyle with Sherlock Holmes pleasure drowned in a Swiss waterfall.

Once one of the actors asked Conan Doyle, can I marry Sherlock Holmes. "Zhenite his kill, do with it what you want" - that was the answer to the author. Not the last role here was the fact that Sir Arthur increasingly confused with Holmes. In particular rabies led Conan Doyle's account, sent in the name of Sir Sherlock. Jokes with titles Conan Doyle could not stand.

"I do not want to be ungrateful to Holmes, who in many ways was a good friend to me. And if I get tired of it, then it happened due to the fact that the image did not allow any of contrasts "(A. Conan Doyle).

I fulfilled my simple task,
If I am given at least an hour of joy
The boy, who is half man,
Or men - still half-boy.

(Epitaph on the tomb of Sir Arthur,
written by himself.)

Once Watson wrote a humorous "Passport" Sherlock Holmes.
"Sherlock Holmes - his ability.
1. Knowledge of the literature - no.
2. Knowledge of philosophy - no.
3. Knowledge of astronomy - no.
4. Knowledge of policies - weak.
5. Knowledge of botany - is uneven. Knows the properties of belladonna, opium and poisons in general. Do not have a clue about gardening.
6. Knowledge of Geology - Practical, but limited. At first glance identifies samples of different soils. After showing me walking splashing mud on his trousers, and their color and consistency determines from which it is London.
7. Knowledge of chemistry - deep.
8. Knowledge of anatomy - accurate.
9. Knowledge of the criminal chronicle - huge. Who knows, it seems, all the details of each crime committed in the nineteenth century ».
10. Good plays the violin.
11. Excellent fences with swords and spadroon, Beautiful Boxer.
12. Thorough working knowledge of English law.
It is unlikely that Dr. Watson heard saying Prutkov: "Specialist similar flux." However, the biographer of Mr. Holmes almost exactly followed this dictum. And, of course, largely mistaken.

Let's start with the fact that not only Holmes played the violin and was a true music lover. He improvised, he composed the music of German composers adored creativity and constantly dragged poor Watson with a concert. In addition, Holmes well versed in the advantages and disadvantages of Cremonese violins, easily talked "about the difference between a Stradivarius and Amati masterpieces».

It was not alien detective consultant and fiction. He could choose the topic of conversation for the work of the English writer George Meredith. At times he quoted Goethe, Flaubert, and in the original, and once, by the way, in front of Watson, pulled out a pocket volume of Petrarch, on the road to enjoy poetry.
"Knowledge about gardening Holmes did not have any," - said Dr. Watson. The fact in itself questionable, because not yet born to light the Englishman, who knew nothing about would be growing plants. What can you do, a national tradition! In addition, its London sensing element, the great detective, as it turned out, secretly dreamed of "plunge into the peace and quiet of nature." "Come take a walk in this wonderful groves, Watson, admire birds and flowers».
So right when Watson?

"I never really cared about the details - sometimes you need to feel the absolute master. Once, when alarmed by the editor wrote to me: "In this place there is a second line of rails" - I said, "I will even make it." (A. Conan Doyle)
The method of deduction.
This way of thinking logically "taught" Sherlock Holmes, Joseph Bell, a surgeon Edinburgh Hospital. Incidentally, the famous detective from Bell partially inherited his extraordinary appearance. Do not believe? A. Conan Doyle Ask.
"Bell was a very remarkable man, as the good looks and intelligence. He was tall, wiry, dark-haired, with a long-nosed face shrewd, attentive gray eyes, thin shoulders and jerking gait. He had a sharp voice. He was very strong in the diagnosis, not only of disease, but also a profession and character. For reasons that remained a mystery to me, he singled me out from the crowd of students, often visited his room and made me his outpatient secretary ... But I have had ample opportunity to study his methods and make sure that it is often, glancing at the patient learned about it more than I asked that question "(A. Conan Doyle).
Incidentally, Joseph Bell with sympathy for Sherlock Holmes and carefully followed the course of his investigations.

The famous phrase.
The most famous phrase of Sherlock Holmes? "Elementary Watson". However, Russian interpreters sometimes forced to utter detective tasteless "excellent" or "primitive", "very easy" or "nothing." Only occasionally in the pages of local publications found proud "Elementary, my dear Watson!". But in 1991 there was a newspaper in Sverdlovsk holmsianskogo Society, which was called ... Well, of course, "Elementary, my dear Watson!».

Sayings Sherlock Holmes
Holmes said, as a rule, a little, but his speech was filled with aphorisms. Let me remind you a few of them.
"All my life - continuous effort to escape the dreary monotony of our everyday life. Small puzzles that I sometimes solve, help me to achieve this goal ».
"Investigation of crimes - an exact science, at least, it should be».
"It seems to me that the human brain is like a little empty attic, which you can arrange as you want».
"If we discard all absolutely impossible, it is what is left - however improbable it may seem - is the truth!»
"I never guess. It is a bad habit detrimental effect on the ability to think logically ».
"You see everything, but do not give trouble to reflect on what you see!»

Memorial place
At the end of XIX - early XX centuries. in London, in the street Baker Street was not home 221-b (shaped as letters "b" is only the second floor).
Now a house there, and there is a permanent museum of Sherlock Holmes. It all started with the exhibition, which in 1950 in a house on Baker Street opened the writer's widow Jean Conan Doyle. Then some of the items transferred to the tavern "Sherlock Holmes" on Northumberland Street. Here they are today, for that matter, and portraits of movie stars who played the role of a detective consultant. It is said that in England there is a tradition - all entered the service in Scotland Yard consider it their duty to look into the tavern on Northumberland Street and miss it a glass or two.
The memory of Holmes cherish not only the staff of the two museums.
On St Bartholomew's Hospital hanging plaque, which states that it was here, in 1881, first met Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. The second plaque was installed in Switzerland at the infamous waterfall.
In several cities of England erected a sculpture of Sherlock Holmes.


For unclear reasons, until the end of Sherlock Holmes refused knighted. It was in June 1902. However, he considered it an honor to accept the Order of the Legion of Honor. On a few memorable gifts received from the investigator, and other crowned heads of the powerful, modestly keep silent.
More recently, on 16 October 2002, Mr. Holmes was accepted as a member of the British Royal Society of Chemistry. Typically, such an honor awarded mainly Nobel laureates, eminent scientists and industrialists. Secretary General Dr. David Dzhakardi Society (Dr David Giachardi), commenting on the decision for admission into the society of the great detective, said: "This was a great man, used his clear mind, courage and achievements of science in the fight against evil».

In his memoirs, Sir Arthur Holmes called prototype surgeon Joseph Bell and Watson prototype - Major Wood. Readers stubbornly believes otherwise. Some equated Doyle and Sherlock Holmes, the other - between Doyle and Watson. It seems that both of them were far from the truth: if the two famous heroes of a portrait of one person, most likely, will - alter ego of their creator, Arthur Conan Doyle.



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