A selection of photos of 20 pieces
In one of the patios of the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant (MZKT) is "Jurassic Park." It is home to The Iron Giant ...
... Created during the "cold war».
Standing in the open peeling and rusty grandiose Soviet machines have quite a sad look. It's hard to imagine that just a few decades ago, these "raketozavry" its monumentality, the roar of engines and impressive cross made a lasting impression on others. Looking at them, Soviet citizens were assured that one sixth of the land, which is defending these machines were not in danger.
Two? Four? 24 driving wheels!
Axels 8x8 (eight wheels and leading) commands respect from people who know. Meanwhile, until today MWTP serially produces tractors with wheel formulas 10x10, 12x12 and 16x16. Moreover, at the plant can meet amazing machines MAZ-7907. This is tyachach 24 wheels and they all lead! Under the contours of the cab mounted tank gas turbine GTD-1250 capacity of 1250 hp She spins the impressive size of the generator, which supplies power to all 24 of the electric wheels.
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Raketovoz twelve-MAZ-7907 can be called the most impressive tractor Soviet Union. He had a 24-wheel drive, 16 of them managed, and it leads the movement of the tank capacity of the gas turbine engine 1250 hp
Because the machine has not been put into service, it is possible to say that the world's only 12-axle all-wheel drive tractor.
Surprisingly, the multi-story car MWTP began with the tractor, which had only two wheels - it was meant to create special self-propelled machines. The first work created in 1954 MAZ Special Design Bureau (SKB-1) - single axle tractor MAZ-529 - used complete with scraper. With a curb weight of 9 tons, he could haul 25-ton trailer. Chief Designer of the new unit formed to develop multi-wheel-drive heavyweights became Boris L. Shaposhnik. Before the war he worked as chief designer of the Moscow ZIL, and then headed UlZIS (later UAZ).
Experienced designers quickly created a team of talented professionals. Thanks to them, the new cars can boast a host of technical innovations. Tractors so well established, that soon the Soviet Union three new plant: BelAZ, MoAZ and KZKT (Kurgan plant of wheeled tractors). They started with the release of D units Shaposhnik.
The first major achievement of CSC-1 (later MZKT) began a four-MAZ-535 with all-wheel drive, which was born in 1957 and was intended for towing a 10-ton artillery systems. It was the first Soviet tractor with hydromechanical transmission. However, the gear shift was even semi-automatic: the driver (not the automatic control) to choose which enable transmission.
For better maneuverability and better maneuvering designers used wheel independent torsion bar suspension. The car also had a central tire inflation, a record number of differentials (there were seven!), The original frame structure, steering and braking systems.
From design tractors for artillery systems to MWTP soon moved on to the development of a truck tractor with semi-trailer designed for transporting tracked military vehicles. Later automobile designers began to collaborate closely with the creators of missiles. The first such development was the four-MAZ-543, designed for the launcher first Soviet solid-tactical missiles "Temp." On the basis of this car was designed by a whole family of Soviet raketovozov.
Epoch tyazheleyuschih missiles
Raketovozov noteworthy was the fact that they had two separate double cabins. In one was a driver-mechanic and crew member in the other - the crew commander and member of the crew. Launch (or simulator) is between the cabin, which reduces the height of the machine. For the first time in domestic practice booths were made of fiberglass: it makes them easier, and besides this two-layer cabin has been able to withstand the shock wave of a nuclear explosion. In this case it was provided and special photochromic glass: in the explosion, they become opaque, preventing blindness in the cabin crew.
Rosli weight range of the missiles, the number and power of warheads - military needed every year more and more powerful tractors. Increasing load required to increase the number of axes, and soon began production of six-axle MAZ-547. In order to appear later complex "Topol" twelve wheels already was not enough - for it was designed semiosnoe MAZ-7912 with the wheel formula 14x12. Increased range missiles and increase its weight required the creation of eight-axle chassis MZKT-7923. In the design of this machine designers abandoned the traditional drive with a lot of drive shafts, instead using a hydraulic actuator. But the range of gear ratios hydrostatic transmission was not sufficient - at low speed and high torque hydraulic pressure transmission is very high, and because of leaks in the hydraulic motors and pumps, transmission efficiency drops. And in the high speed transmission efficiency has dropped because of the increased friction in motors and pumps. So, too, declined by hydraulics, using electric instead. Making his trusted Novosibirsk specialists from the Institute of complete sets of equipment, we have successfully coped with the task. A powerful gas turbine engine borrowed from the T-80 tank, upgrade it to work with a generator. To prevent electric motors to overheat, used oil cooling. "Cold War" was in full swing, and "to maintain a balance with the United States" urgently required to create new machines. So it came to light, perhaps the most interesting cars developed MWTP. Probably the most expensive in the world! The Soviet government spared no expense, and in the course were the most expensive materials. In particular, to reduce the weight of the machine is widely used parts of titanium!
Trips to giants
One of the most impressive experimental tractors in the USSR was the six-axle MAZ-7904. Total weight of this machine is 360 tons, and carrying capacity - 220 tons, remarkable performance for all-wheel drive car. Since the Soviet Union did not let the tire to withstand enormous loads, falls on each axis of the machine, "tires" were ordered in Japan - truck driving on giant tires Bridgestone diameter of 3, 1 m. It is interesting that the machine was equipped with not one, but immediately two motors. The first ship (1500 hp) drives the wheels via two hydromechanical transmission, while the second, a typical 330-horsepower diesel engine, used for the accessories.
For the project, "Celina" in 1984, produced a pair of eight-car MAZ-7906 with all-wheel drive, and a year later - a pair of twelve-MAZ-7907. In the last machines have used domestic tire diameter of 2 and 1, 66 m. They were designed for much smaller loads than the tires on MAZ-7904, but the tractor had less capacity (150 m) and a larger number of wheels. None of the giant machines MWTP experimental and has not been put into service, although almost all of them have been successfully tested. With the end of "cold war" need instruments formidable of these machines is missing.
The military in civilian
With the collapse of the Soviet Union disappeared and the need for other military developments MWTP, and to get out of the crisis, many of the machines processed for civilian purposes. Raketovozy changed multiwheel drilling machine, and to replace carriers artillery systems and tanks came construction equipment. However, military vehicles, and have not lost their positions. Renewed orders from Russia, there were foreign customers - Turkey, UAE, Egypt, Pakistan, Syria, China. In China even organized its own production of construction machinery MWTP. And when we were at the factory, he found there officials from the UAE, who took the party tankovozov for his army. Arabs roamed the territory of the plant, with interest looking at the huge Soviet-era tractors.
Intercontinental ballistic missiles improved from year to year. To increase their weight and to the top 70 for the launchers required more powerful chassis than those that have been created SKB Grachev. We built a transcontinental gas pipeline, which were also required heavy pipe trucks, fires jetliners could locate only powerful airfield fire engines, which required special chassis.
In August 1954 the Council of Ministers of the USSR takes urgent decision on the establishment of the Minsk Automobile Plant Special Design Bureau, which is entrusted with the design. He became chief designer Boris L. Shaposhnik before engaged pit dump trucks. Now, as a design office headed by Shaposhnikov and his name became surrounded by a barrier of privacy. Later renamed the Bureau Shaposhnik Private Room 2 Chief Designer, and his team started developing a heavy wheeled artillery tractor type 8x8, which is assigned index MAZ-535.
In June 1956, finishes work on the first two prototypes, which in the next two years, tested intensively in the most difficult road conditions. At the same time creates a tractor on the basis of MAZ-535, received an index MAZ-537, intended to tow semi-trailers for heavy tanks. Both options are initially produced at the facilities of MAZ and then their production is transmitted to then secret Kurgan automobile plant who built annually 150-200 MAZ-535 and MAZ-537.
Structurally, both cars have a lot in common, especially on the layout and the most important technical decisions. They are set twelve-diesel engine D-12A, which develops power of 375 hp at 1650 rev / min or 525 hp at 2100 rev / min, which is implemented behind a spacious and comfortable four-seater cabin.
For motor otsekom- loading platform (MAZ-535A, MAZ-537A) or the fifth wheel (MAZ-535V, MAZ-537 and MAZ-537G, MAZ-537E). Eight-chassis integrates single wheel bogie 2: front and rear. 4 front wheels turn, with the help of a steering with the hydraulic booster. Wheel suspension front carriage performed at an independent wishbone and longitudinal torsion bars. Suspension rear wheel balance-bezressornaya. An exception is the MAZ-535A, which has independent suspension front and rear wheels. On this car at the first and fourth pairs of wheels mounted telescopic shock absorbers. Huge tire size 18.00-24 have the air pressure of 07 to 2, 0 kg / cm, the adjustment is made by means of a centralized system. From the engine torque through the accelerating gear is transmitted to the converter and associated 3-stupenchantuyu planetary gearbox and two-speed transfer case. It is built with a center differential lock forced. Between the driving axles of each bogie includes limited slip differentials. Furthermore, between the wheels of the first and second bridges were introduced bevel differentials with always-on friction clutches and between the wheels of the third and fourth bridges freewheel: they all began to act as a self-locking differentials.
Initially the tractors to be used to transport tanks, artillery systems and other military equipment weighing 20 to 50 tons. But gradually penetrate the machine and in the economy as a tractor for trailers and semi-trailers - heavy trucks bearing the large indivisible loads. When a particularly unique transport as it was in 1967, during transport 200-ton transformer Inguri, in hitch came just three ballast tractor MAZ-535. Very fond Shaposhnik machine builders and oil and gas pipelines. Pletevozy on the chassis of the all-terrain vehicle completed major transport works on the construction of an international pipeline "Druzhba". Nevertheless, the main purpose of mnogokolesnikov Shaposhnik still military. For the first time the ballast tractor MAZ-535A with a ballistic missile "R-14" appeared on the October 1961 parade. Then were put into service, truck tractors MAZ-537 with trailers, which were established SS-11, mass reached 32 tons. The basic model of the family "535" - tractor MAZ-535A with Flatbed.
He could be transported in the back of 7000 kg of cargo and tow a trailer full mass of 15 000 kg. Wet weight of this very complex vehicle was 18 975 kg. He had an extremely high cross that reached all-wheel independent suspension, ground clearance of half a meter, wide tires and the variable-pressure hydraulic transmissions. MAZ-535A developed 60 km / h, took climbs 30 degrees, crossed the water barrier and a half meters, spent on 100 km 75 liters of diesel fuel. On the basis of MAZ-535A produced tractor MAZ-535V. In addition, the MAZ-537A equipped with on-board platform, it could carry 15 tons of cargo and tow a trailer with a total weight of 30 tons of broken country roads and 75-ton trailer on paved roads. Also MAZ-537A in the family included several tractors and MAZ-537 can tow a trailer on a good road CHMZAP- 5274B total weight of 65 tons and 50 tons capacity. MAZ-537G was equipped with a winch, and has been adapted for towing a semitrailer full weight 68 tons. Other tractor, MAZ-537E with the other current generator designed for active semitrailer full weight 65 tons. Finally, commercially available MAZ-537K, which is mounted on the chassis of mobile cranes.
By the end of the 60's it was ready to design and prototype a new family, received an index MAZ-543. During its creation Boris L. and his colleagues were awarded the State Prize.
Since March 1959, in the Minsk Automobile Plant started its own production of wheeled tractors and 543 series machines have become a staple of the unit. New machines first became the basis on which the equipment was mounted missile launchers 8K14, as originally used for this missile tracked chassis did not provide a smooth ride over rough terrain. And as a chassis for a variety of types of missiles, it had 2 double cabins for fighting crew, which is located between the head portion of the rocket. Engine power 525 hp I placed between the cabins outside the wheelbase. Since the chassis and bore the rocket and launcher, the residual capacity is 19-20 tons. Technical solutions embodied in ATV models "535" was so successful, that have been further developed in the family and "543". MAZ-543 received an independent torsion bar suspension of all wheels with telescopic shock absorbers, central tire inflation system, up to 7700 mm, and the wheelbase has increased, and the track began in 2375 mm. None of the axial load on the roadway, or on width they did not meet the standards for public roads. But the swamp, sand, and deep snow came with a rather high average speed, which, in fact, required by mobile launchers. High quality traction and flotation done MAZ-543 welcome not only the military but also the builders. Civil modification MAZ-543 with on-board cargo platform received index MAZ-7310, pipe carrier - MAZ-7901, Truck - MAZ-7510, and tractor MAZ-73132. These machines were used neftegazokompleksom and worked fine in complete off-road.
On the basis of MAZ-543 creates a special MAZ-543M with a shower. It was mounted anti - aircraft missile system "C-300" self-propelled artillery system, "Beach" or multiple launch rocket system "Smerch". The family of "543" has established itself not only as a successful design of the machine. They did not have analogues in the global automotive industry, and foreign military model with four pairs of driving wheels Mazama inferior in all respects. Improving the rockets went through irreversible, so in the mid-70s for the mobile launchers needed longer powerful chassis. Then there were 10 and 12 and wheel car MAZ-547 that does not require significant changes in the design as designers Shaposhnik originally laid in their modular design.