Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) - the ninth child in the family of a professor of theology, Johann Kircher. He received an excellent education. He graduated from a Jesuit college, where he studied mathematics, physics, logic, philosophy and languages - Latin, Greek and Hebrew. In 26 years, he received his doctorate.
Professor of mathematics, philosophy and Oriental Languages University of Wurzburg.
During the 30-year war against the Protestants ran first in Avignon and then to Rome. He has published 40 books: arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, the theory of logarithms, astronomy, chronograph, geography, acoustics, and dioptrics catoptrics, mechanics, statics, hydrology, hydraulic engineering, pyrotechnics, cryptography, fortification, topography, chemistry, architecture, structural mechanics music, telescopes, microscopes, magnets and their properties, hydraulic organs, vending machines, pneumatic machines, diving bells, military tactics and strategy, and so on. d
He built a special machine, with which you can get a notation of songs of birds. Led notation vote chicken, rooster, cuckoo and quail. Disassemble the influence of music on a person, depending on his temperament.
Invented device for the hearing impaired and a megaphone. Described phosphorescence and fluorescence. I constructed a magnetic clock.
The first described the artificially induced cataleptic state in animals. He proved that a twig dowser does not react to water or metal, if not in the hands of a man (and thus saved many innocent people - with this twig searched killers)
Made a few hydraulic jukeboxes. He built the prototype of a synthesizer in which it was possible to obtain different timbres of wind, stringed instruments and noise, as well as program the melody within the scale tool.
The first used a microscope to study the blood of patients with plague and came to the conclusion that the disease is caused by micro-organisms. He also suggested effective measures to fight the disease - isolation, quarantine, burning clothes cases and wearing protective mask
To descend into the crater of Mount Etna in Sicily. He created the theory of volcanism and water circulation within the body of the Earth. In his view, the Earth's core is a fiery liquid mass surrounded by a solid crust, which are pockets of magma pouring through volcanoes. He was one of the initiators of the first magnetic survey of the Earth
He created a map of Atlantis. It outlines fairly accurately match the unknown during the time of Kircher lines depths of the ocean.
He invented the world's first projector, and includes a light source, and transparency, and an optical system and the screen
The founder of the system analysis. He gathered all known at that time information about Egypt. For the study of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs learned Syriac, Chaldean, Arabic and Coptic. In fact, Europe has infected Kircher interest in Egypt. I came up with a coherent (though wrongly) system decoding Egyptian hieroglyphics. However, the theory has developed quite right that the Coptic - Egyptian later development. Kircher also created the grammar of Coptic - it relied Champollion deciphered hieroglyphics
In fact, Christians discovered Kabbalah - presenting an image kabbalicheskogo tree Sephiroth is in the form in which it would be accessible and understandable to Christian readers. Semidesyatidvukratnoe brought the name of God, the famous shemhamforash, saying that Moses made the Red Sea parted
Released "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Chinese Empire", which compiled all the information known about China - Kircher was in correspondence with more than 760 scientists and physicians
I create a "machine metaphors." Founded Kirhenarium - a unique collection of antiquities and curiosities from around the world. Kircher was the first scientist who was able to live and work by selling his books.
I calculated that if the Tower of Babel has reached heaven, she would have turned the Earth. To calculate the size of Noah's Ark
A few years after his death in his drawings it was built a calculating machine that could perform relatively simple arithmetic, geometric and astronomical calculations. In addition, it can encrypt messages, calculate the date of Easter, as well as composing music. Operating instructions of the machine consisted of 850 pages, and "algorithms" were verses in Latin, which users had to learn by heart.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452 - 1519) - the great Italian artist and inventor. The genius ahead of his time for several centuries. Humanist. The man who invented the tank, fan, diving suit, machine gun, parasailing, biking, helicopter, car, poison gas, a smoke screen for troops, magnifying glass, textile machines, weaving machines, machines for the manufacture of needles, powerful cranes, presses, woodworking, machines, devices for grinding glass, metallurgical furnaces ...
With the exception of the first point, everything else is uncertain.
Leonardo da Vinci did not receive any education, in addition to art, in fact, he never even learned in elementary school. Fourteen Leonardo was given to the training of an apprentice painter in the studio of the painter and sculptor Verrocchio. After six years, paying 32 Soldi, Leonard was admitted to the workshop of the Florentine artists
As an artist, Leonardo constantly breaks all time. In 1478 Leonardo received the first major order: write an altarpiece in the chapel of the town hall, the Palazzo Vecchio. Leonardo pulls the job for five years. As a result, the work was never completed, and the order was given to another artist.
In 1480 Da Vinci was invited to the court of the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza as a musician and improviser
Leonardo was commissioned to decorate the new hall of the Big Meeting. At the same time it receives the order and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who has been given the second part of the wall. Leonardo begins work to dry and fire destroys all
Great Michelangelo never thought of Leonardo the painter. He claimed that his servant realizes in painting and sculpture more than Leonardo. Michelangelo's lifetime called da Vinci "Milan violinist."
Da Vinci began working on the project equestrian statue - the height of 7 meters. 80 tons of bronze. Nearly 16 years of work. Still limited to plaster model
Leonardo general suffers gigantomania. Absolutely unreal stone bridge over the Bosphorus height of 40 meters, length 350 meters. Without a single support.
The giant 25 meter crossbow.
Colossal excavator is able to dig a ditch width of 18 and a depth of 6 meters.
The fact that Leonardo was a very poor mathematician. In 1495, in Milan comes Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli, renowned mathematician and theorist of accounting. The "Atlantic Code" Leonardo is a record, "learn from Luke Messer, how to multiply square roots." Incidentally, Leonardo has not learned to solve quadratic equations.
But Leonardo was a great manipulator. He was "a handsome, well built, possessed enormous physical strength, was well versed in the knightly arts, horseback riding, tantsovanii, fencing»
Preserved resume Leonardo, he wrote to Ludovico Sforza, ruler of Milan:
Honorable sir, plenty of watching the creation of the hands of those obnoxious upstart who imagine themselves to be the true masters and inventors of instruments of war, and finally making sure that the device and the add application tools are in no way different from those that are commonly used on the battlefields, I took the liberty without any prejudice to third parties offer their services to your Highness, in order to acquaint you with my secrets; then I could at any convenient time for you to give yourself completely to your disposal a gracious and show you all the tools I have here briefly enumerate.
1. I have a ready-made drawings of bridges, very light and strong - despite the fact that they do not require the construction of special works.
2. In the case of the siege of a town, I know exactly how to pump water out of the castle moats and how to build countless scaling ladders and other useful tools.
3. If, because of the height of the ramparts and fortifications of the city and because of its very favorable location it was impossible to crush him throwing kernels, I know the correct ways to break any citadel or fortress, even if it is standing on a rock.
4. I have the blueprints for the manufacture of artillery, very convenient and easy to transport, with the help of the scatter thereof can be the enemy hail of small stones.
5. In the case of a sea battle, I have the blueprints for the construction of all kinds of smart devices that are best suited for the attack and defense, as well as the vessels that are able to resist the fire of powerful weapons, because these should not fear any gunpowder or smoke.
6. In addition, I know how to go with the army in any place will please your Highness to pass, wading caves and cleverly-winding underground passages, what are digging so that no one can hear the slightest noise - even if it had to to make a tunnel under the river.
7. In addition, I am able to tinkering carts, covered with iron, safe, secure and inaccessible; equipped with guns, they whirl slam into the serried ranks of the enemy, and no army, no matter how good it may have been armed, could not stand in front of them. And walking behind them the infantry can move forward without the slightest damage to itself without encountering on its way with no resistance.
8. And if that need arises, I can produce guns, mortars and light artillery guns, the type is very comely and refined, but also - very easy to handle and quite different from those that apply universally.
9. Where it is impossible to use guns, I can provide the army ballistae, catapults, ladders and other devices remarkably effective, what is not none of our enemies. In short, no matter what the circumstances, I can provide you with any number of various offensive and defensive weapons.
10. In time of peace I have, I think, better than any other can fully satisfy all your needs in regard to the architecture and construction of buildings - both for public and for private purposes, and the water supply from one place to another .
11. Furthermore, I can sculpt sculpture in marble, bronze and clay; I is subject also to painting, in which works of my abilities bear comparison with the works of any other master, whoever he was.
12. Moreover, I am ready to take up the job of casting a bronze horse that is meant to commemorate the blessed memory of your august priest and to sing in the offspring of imperishable glory of the great kind of Sforza. And if any of the above things seem to anyone impossible or impossible, I suggest you try me in your hunting area, or in any other place where it pleases Your Highness, which I'm now with the utmost humility, offer my humble services.
Leonardo da Vinci in 1482
Who would refuse such a man? Sensible people valued very expensive.
The expression "The captain leaves the ship last," not one of those times - the captain could cost more than the ship, cargo and crew together
Leonardo Sforza appoints a huge salary - 5000 ducats a year and offers accommodation in the city center (Ducat weighed 3, 5 g and minted from almost pure gold - Da Vinci receives a month of almost 1, 5 kg of gold)
I wonder how Leonardo was going to stop the French, who then double-take the city? (By the way Leonardo himself then move them to the service). Where are the carts with guns that "whirlwind crash into serried ranks of the enemy»?
It is not clear why it is called a tank. In fact, it is rather a land vehicle. There's even a ladder to Mars.
Imagine how much it will weigh the wood, "indoor iron" ship. Add a lot of guns on the carriages on the perimeter, nuclear stocks and gunpowder, gun crews, the command post ... What will push forward this multi-ton monster?
First, Leonardo wanted to put in the middle of the two horses, but then decided that the animals are frightened by gunfire proposed to replace them with a team of 8 people.
Great! On the road
And so in all. What is called Leonardo's car - three-wheeled cart, which the plant key
Helicopter Leonardo. Since the screw of fine linen impregnated starch is 5 meters in diameter. It should be driven by four people lever rotates in a circle (of course such power would be insufficient and, moreover, even in case of lifting the structure would rotate around its axis
Chemical weapon? Very simple: "If you want to make the stench, take human excrement, stinking goosefoot, if not find, use cabbage or beets. Put it all together in a glass jar, well corked, and hold for three months under the manure, then throw it where you want to make a stink, so that it is broken ».
And the result is a very interesting thing. All the "invention" of Leonardo is very clearly divided into two groups:
or one hundred percent hit - and why all these inventions were already known by the end of the 18th century - when the drafts were found Leonardo
or wide slip - just from the region yet undiscovered
Although there is another group - a recent discovery of
For example, the famous Leonardo bicycle - rough fake sixties of the twentieth century
Leonardo's famous bicycle. Conspicuous two things:
1. suspiciously similar to the present.
2. Why is a wonderful painter Leonardo painted pedal below ground level - try to ride on this?
And more: the bike is painted in graphite pencil. Graphite was discovered in Cumberland thirty years after the death of Leonardo
How is it, for example, explosive shells or artillery guidance system that improves accuracy by several times not been implemented professional military? Humans are very susceptible to technical innovations?
Especially considering that Leonardo was the court engineer and had a very serious impact
Why Leonardo had no absolutely no impact on the technological progress? I do not write any books?
Why in an age of gunpowder he did slings, steam catapults and cannons?
The only thing the present invention, which is to somehow try to ascribe to Leonardo - wheel lock pistol (for spark gun was got the key) - a thing, of course wonderful, but with high probability before it was invented by the German watchmakers
Lathe. Very similar
The fact that drafts Leonardo appeared gradually. Please note priceless belonged pupil of Leonardo, Francesco Melzi, but when he died, the manuscript disappeared. Individual pieces began to "float" at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries
Still, it was invented by Leonardo invented during the great industrial revolution
A "discovered" some engineer Leonardo Carlo Amoretti - discoverer Magellan drafts
Sometimes the question arises - how is it ... some mechanisms do not work without the ball ...
Please: in 1967 a new miracle discovery - Madrid Code
Here's a ball. As a true
But you want - gearbox. We do not mind
Moreover - adding machine on which IBM has done a workable 13-bit summing machine
Maybe you want a robot?
2005. Found new drafts Leonardo
Conclusions themselves make? ..
Source mi3ch.livejournal.com: via, via