Do not believe it, but the first cell phone, or rather its progenitor, Brezhnev came back in the 70s. Even then, Leonid Ilyich, walking in the country, talking on a portable "tube" with his wife. And during Brezhnev's visit to the US on secret lines communicated with his subordinates directly from the residence Nixon. And indeed the leaders of the Soviet state could bind to the Kremlin from the plane or train 40 years ago. Incidentally, none of the countries at the time could not boast of special communication of this level ...
And what about the relationship with the Kremlin today? "MK" of the most competent sources found:
- The president of the mobile phone is different from yours;
- Why you can not get through to the Heads of State;
- What phones used by Russian emperors and general secretaries.
Vladimir Putin, pictured
The fact that the first person of our state - the most knowledgeable people in the world is largely due to Lieutenant-General Yuri Tolmachev. It was a long time he headed the KGB for government communications, was deputy minister of Communications of the USSR, then - Russia. Now he is - advisor to the Minister.
"Kremlevka" worked flawlessly
- Yuri Alexandrovich, in terms of communication, including the government, in the Russian military and post-war years far behind?
- Unfortunately yes. During the war, I analyzed the trophy technique (I then studied at the military department of the Moscow Institute of Communication Engineers and also fought on the front). I was struck by the German cables that can withstand bad weather, which can be easily and quickly deployed. And then we were mostly overhead lines, constantly breaking down. The Germans were radio stations with parametric stabilization, which worked without a special tuning.
When the Nazis were approaching Stalingrad, our main forces actually were cut off from the southern group. Then it was decided to build a three-channel communication line from Moscow through Persia with access to Lankaran. Especially for this was created by a detachment of young communicators - voenfaka listeners, who was appointed to lead me. After the work was finished, I went to Moscow to report to Ivan Peresypkin (future Marshal), who was then the Minister of Communications. I told him that our structures are easily intercepted. The Germans even said: "At first to us and then to himself".
- It turns out, the Germans listened as our military commanders were talking?
- Even if the protection of government communications was sufficient, that none of the intercepted communications the enemy could not decipher.
After my report Peresypkin asked Stalin to urgently establish a production that would be involved in communication. And in 1943, we have already started working two factories NGOs (wired structure of special communication and radio communication device). I periodically advise them on production handsets, then in the Ministry of Defense was responsible for the production of military communications systems ... In the 70 th, I was summoned to the Central Committee and offered to go to serve in the Office of Government Communications of the USSR. By the time the government communications in the Union was far behind from what it was in other developed countries, and do not correspond to the real political situation. I've been head of the KGB, and at the same time the commander of government communications for more than 15 years. During this time we managed to overtake the leading country. - That you were the author of the legendary "Caucasus"?
- It was developed by scientists of the leading research institutes. I was one of the authors of the governmental communication plan, approved by the Central Committee. It was designed for 20 years, but every two years in it to make adjustments based on our latest scientific achievements and information obtained foreign intelligence.
- What is then the famous "Kremlevka"?
- It was a wire communication system with a dedicated line, the cables that were underground. It was called ATS-1 was exclusively urban. Telephones "Kremlin hospital" (first black, then white) were in the office of each member of the Central Committee, the heads of all the major institutions of Moscow. By the way, the system worked without classification, and it was impossible to intercept calls, used the method of inductive noise on the cable sheath.
- And how the first person calls to other cities?
- For this purpose a system for long-distance communication line. She was on the air routes to every major industrial center. HF communication devices have been installed at the party and Soviet leaders in the field. And this connection was already protected by two to classify (time and guaranteed stability) systems.
- They are not allowed to intercept a conversation?
- Interception was possible (and such attempts by potential enemies we fixed), but difficult to decipher. More precisely, it takes so long that it became simply useless.
- Officials dials a number or through the operator?
- Phones senior executives had no drive and includes automatic hook. They just went on spetskommutator. The subscriber simply call the name of the position or the person with whom I would like to talk to, and he was immediately joined. And the leaders of lower rank themselves recruited the desired number. All were classified telephone directories, which, according to instructions, it should be stored under lock and key.
- A need to VIP subscriber to call for a secret word that the phone did not take someone else?
- No, no passwords were not. To get to the offices of top executives could not outsiders. In addition, operators spetskommutatora knew the voices of all of its subscribers.
pictured Yuri Alexandrovich Tolmachev
- One of ordinary Muscovites could mistakenly dial, say, Andropov?
- It is possible. Direct electronic contact between the government and the ordinary telephone line was not the CO.
- It is true that in the offices were listening devices? And could overhear the conversation operators spetskommutatora?
- It's a fairy tale. Operators are not overheard - technically it was impossible. After all, they are automatically disconnected from the connection as soon as the two parties are interconnected.
"Hello, the car listening to Brezhnev"
- And when the phones were in the cars of officials?
- By September 1970 it has established a system of mobile radio in a car under the name "Rosa" a range of about 60 km. What is she like? Handset in the car, transmitter and power supply in the trunk. The whole system is fastened on the radio transmitter and the antenna are placed on the highest point of the building of Moscow State University. It was a direct VHF communication range of about 900 MHz, and therefore the channel, and the central station classified. But as the work of all the equipment was extremely unstable, the system is actually in operation before my arrival was not introduced. And the urgency of my transfer to the Department of Government Communications KGB has just been called in order to start it. I had to connect the best minds and companies. As a result, a year later to call from their cars could all major leaders.
- Faults in radio "Zilahi" and "The Seagull" often gave?
- Almost never. I remember only one case with the chairman of the Council of Ministers Tikhonov. He went to the country and talking on the phone in the car, when he lost contact. I was immediately told that Tikhonov dissatisfied. Then I sat down in his car and saw that the car is defective electrical equipment. And no cause signalers were not here.
- And when the secretary general could call the plane?
- First, on board his aircraft could receive and send telegrams. To do this, in the Atlantic Ocean it was delivered three powerful ship that retransmitted radio to America. And then we connected satellites.
- Is satellite communications in the 70s was already?
- Yes, but first to a limited extent only telegraphic. It provided flying in an elliptical orbit satellites "Molniya-1" and "Lightning 2". It was not enough, because we have set the task - the country's leadership must have telephone service anywhere in the same plane or train. To solve it, we launched another satellite "Molniya-3", which was already three-channel. He also flew in an elliptical orbit, so that he could provide a secure communications anywhere in the world. To note, the Americans then were guided by satellite, which could provide a link only to the seventieth parallel. So thanks to the "Lightning-3" in the plane "IL-86", which flew the country's leadership, there was a phone. In the grotto of the aircraft we installed the antenna "Afar". And then the secretary general in flight could get through to anyone, and to listen to his conversation could not have enemies. After all, we use an automatic system of classifying high resistance to vote. - When the first person would have to call on the handset?
- By 1975, when the radio system is increasingly improved. But to call for the handset can be only if the person is in range of the repeater. It looked like this: there is, for example, Andropov, and talking, and the rear car rides, stuffed with technology. But keep in mind that Yuri likewise called very rarely. He never hunted and did not like to travel a lot, because he felt unwell. But Brezhnev and Ustinov - the ones on the contrary, spinning everywhere, and everywhere we saw to it that he was comfortable in the field of communications. Brezhnev himself liked to get behind the wheel and always check whether the car phone. When he was hunting in "Zavidovo" that sometimes put the phone in his pocket. But before that we have about a week preparing for the reception area of government communications.
- And if the General Secretary traveled outside the Soviet Union?
- It used a very different approach. In 1973, Brezhnev made a visit to the United States. It was the first trip after the end of "cold war", and it lasted more than a week. Before that, when Nixon in 1972, arrived in Moscow, American signalmen here this month sent 100 people to prepare his stock-communication system States were asked to provide them with channels premises. We coped much faster and with less. Brezhnev during his visit and visited Washington and New York, and Los Angeles, and everywhere he had a great relationship with Moscow.
- Had to cables laid?
- No. We installed repeaters in the suburban presidential residence at Camp David. I remember in the early morning rounds of its perimeter, in my pocket handset (the size of a little more than a modern mobile phones), which worked on the relay, the - satellite communications, and she in turn - to Moscow. And then I went for a morning walk Leonid Ilyich. Ask me, they say that you're doing here. I responded: "Checking communication with Moscow." He wondered: "What is checked?". I pulled out his pipe and said, "I Want You to Victoria Petrovna connected?". It is, they say, well, let's try. And yet when I saw him coming out of the house, I pressed the button and after spetskommutator in Moscow prepared channel. This is done instantly. So I handed him the phone and he immediately heard his wife, who was at the other end of the earth. I can say without false modesty, that was the first time in history such a conversation took place.
Photo: Phone book "Kremlin hospital", which was used by Stalin
Hot line for presidents
- One of the most secret was and remains a hot-line system. How to organize it during the Soviet period?
- System based on existing long-distance communication lines using external encryption - shifrolent. And this relationship was at first only telegraph.
- And if the general secretary had to call, say, Reagan?
- He did this in a completely open communication channels. And discuss matters on the phone could not be of national importance. Our task was to just organize the structure of a secure telephone communication between the leaders of the Soviet Union, France, Britain and the United States. Just between the two countries were "straight line." In the first stage they were at sea cables, the next step was the use of short-wave radio. To note, the introduction of short-wave communication for us was very important, because it works even in a nuclear explosion. And then connect the satellites. Externally, the "hot line" is a telephone booth in the Kremlin.
In the photo: the handset))
- Is it true that the military vehicles was installed the coded communication system is unique?
-Yes. It was built three powerful reception centers - in Moscow, Ashgabat and the Far East. They work on the principle of short-wave communication using "Afar". And all this we used when in 1979 our troops were preparing to join the Afghanistan as it was called - in the manner of providing international assistance. We have provided a link from a top secret military vehicle, moving from Moscow to the palace of Amin. And when they took by storm the palace, located on-site commanders call received instructions from the Kremlin. None of that was then, even the Americans. For the development of this system, I received the State Prize and the Order of the Red Star.
- Submarines in the system of governmental communication used?
- Of course. But not once, but with the development of radio and satellite communications. Andropov could already connect with the captain of the submarine (if it were part of the secure communication) in a matter of minutes. But often for this ship had to be lifted to the surface, because through the water signal (electromagnetic waves, especially high-frequency) has been very bad.
- What else is new in government communications when you came?
- It was developed and implemented a new instrument to classify. The level of protection thanks to her immediately increased. There was ATS-2 and long-distance relationship on the basis of the "Caucasus". Units were created for government communications in foreign embassies. Well, the main thing - the whole scale greatly increased the number of substations and covered her. I note that our efforts are valued by the country's leadership. Andropov trusted me around. And although he was a hard and critical person, I was always treated with care. I accompanied him on many of the activities which made reports on communication. And Brezhnev and we all had warm relations. He is very respected communicators.
- Probably, the heads of foreign states have disliked ...
- Contrary. I'm on duty during visits often accompanied by his secretary general. And had the opportunity to chat with many presidents - Nixon, Carter, Ford, Pompidou me ... They expressed their appreciation for the development of hot-line. And one of the presidents even gave me for that bottle of cognac with the rarity of a signature. I kept it for twenty years, and then used for its intended purpose.
- Is it true that you made in the development are still used in the SS? And the first people in the cars are all the same phone?
- Today, for communication system used in the machines "Caucasus", but modified. Both the transmitter is no longer in the building of Moscow State University, and in another place and is very stable. But the main thing now heads out of the car can be equipped with such a system, to communicate, even if they are left outside the Moscow region. And the channels are now used by a wide variety - satellite, cable, microwave, etc. - The president has some special cell phone?
- More precisely - a particular provider. (Laughs.) And in general, the head of state could out of his car by pressing a button to run the entire system of missile defense. Incidentally, all this is unique.
When the president needs to have a relationship in the world, followed by followed by another two cars with special equipment and amplifiers. This is one of the projects of the "Caucasus".
- And he can call Barack Obama?
- If the call of the closed channel, from the workplace, where there is a structure of a hot-line. If the Open - and then we are now able to call Obama. Another thing is that we do not connect with you.
- The Kremlin remained telephone cables since the Emperor?
- No, nothing seems to be with the communication that was not even the end of the war, no longer exists. Every year increases the range, change of control, is a fierce competition for the frequency resources. And just as in the past 10 years, the latest developments have been implemented!
- I do not whether it will lead to difficulties in the area of government communications? Today, because hackers can open bank accounts and seize the government telling them is probably not difficult?
- I assure you, hackers fear not worth it. And the frequency at all enough - because there is no limit. It is possible to use ever higher and higher. Another thing is that before a government bond united all the countries of the former Soviet Union. Now it is not. Another point relates to satellites. The Americans have their 34, and we have three times less.